Classic study Baddeley (1966b) Working memory model: The influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on long-term memory for word sequences.

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What were the aims of this study?
If in LTM memory more impairment would be caused by acoustically similar words or semantically similar words.
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What is this linked to in the production and maintenance of memory?
Whether the coding systems are the same in the LTM and the STM
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What had previous research shown in the STM looking at then same aim?
Acoustically similar words lead to worse recall compared to semantically similar ones.
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What is interference in relation to memory?
Doing something between the registering of something and the rehearsal of that thing in the brain.
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What does interference effect?
Both the STM and the LTM
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How long does the interval need to be between learning and recall have to be to study whether it has been properly registered in the STM
30 seconds
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How long does the interval need to be between learning and recall have to be to study whether it has been properly registered in the LTM
Beyond 30 seconds
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How many lists did he use in the procedure?
4
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What did list A feature?
Acoustically sounding similar words
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What did list B feature?
Non acoustically similar sounding words
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What did list C feature?
Semantically similar adjectives
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What did list D feature?
Non semantically similar adjectives
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What were they all asked to do after seeing the words in the list?
Complete an 'Interference task'
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What was the 'Interference task'?
Hearing then writing down 8 numbers three times
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How long did each word appear on the slideshow?
3 seconds
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How many words were in every list?
10 Words
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How many people were used in the study
72
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How many people were used in each condition
There was 15-20 people in each condition
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What kind of sample was it
Volunteer sample
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Describe the result of the acoustically similar words in the study
Acoustically words seemed to be more confusing at the start before they 'caught up and over took later in the study
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Describe the result of the Semantically similar words in the study
Semantically similar words where also quite hard in fact the experimental group never caught up with the control group
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What did he conclude?
The LTM primarily encodes semantically, the STM encodes acoustically, some words linger on the rehearsal loop
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Evaluate his study in terms of generalizability
He used a large sample (72) meaning any anomalies are averaged out and it can be easily generalised. Each condition had a few people meaning an anomaly could arise in each condition. Only used British people, but not really an issue, volunteer sample
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Evaluate his study in terms of reliability
This has a standardized procedure making it more replicable, also improved the replicability by putting everything on slides and getting rid of the out loud lists as some pps had hearing problems
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Evaluate his study in terms of validity
He used controls like getting people to recall word order instead of recalling just words. It is a very artificial task as in the real world it is not something people do lowering the ecological validity, he improved it by making 5th task a surprise
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Card 2

Front

What is this linked to in the production and maintenance of memory?

Back

Whether the coding systems are the same in the LTM and the STM

Card 3

Front

What had previous research shown in the STM looking at then same aim?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is interference in relation to memory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does interference effect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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