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what is a DNA molecule made up of?
two strands in the shape of a double helix
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what is each strand made up of?
Each strand is made up of lots of small units called nucleotides
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How many different bases does DNA have?
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Name the bases.
Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Thymine (T)
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Which bases always pair together?
A-t and C-G
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what is a gene?
A gene is a section of DNA that contains the instructions for one particular protein.
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What are proteins made of?
proteins are made from cells, by joining amino acids together in a particular order.
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Describe how the order of bases in a gene determines what protein is made.
Each protein is made up of large numbers of amino acid molecules Each triplet of bases codes for one particular amino acid So amino acids are made in the number and order dictated by the number and order of base triplets Finally, the amino acid molec
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where are proteins made?
in the cytoplasm of a cell.
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where is DNA found?
in the nucleus of a cell.
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What is the job of the ribosome?
The job of the ribosome is to stick amino acids together in a chain to make a protein, following the order of bases in the messenger RNA.
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What are new cells needed for?
Growth and repair.
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explain mitosis.
Chromosomes in nucleus are copied then chromosomes line up in the centre of the cell and cell fibres pull them apart. membranes from around each set of chromosomes . This becomes the nuclei for the two new cells. lastly the cytoplasm divers into two.
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what's the cell called when a sperm and egg cell combined?
A Zygote - fertilised egg.
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What are sex cells called?
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How many chromosomes are in a sex cell?
23 chromosomes.
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What does meiosis make?
Sex cells.
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True or false- Both mitosis and meiosis produce cells which are genetically indentiaclly
FALSE, Mitosis: products genetically identical & Meiosis: products genetically diverse
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true or false- mitosis and meiosis produces cells for the same reason.
FALSE, Mitosis: produce cells for growth/repair/asexual reproduction & Meiosis: produce sexual cells
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true or false- mitosis produces two cells, Meiosis produces four cells
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In the human embryo, all the cells are undifferentiated until what stage?
up until the 8 cell stage.
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What name is given to the parts of of plants where mitotically active cells are found?
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What is a cutting?
A cutting is a part of plant which has been cut off.
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What can you add to cuttings to help them grow
Rooting power-(AUXINS)
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Bone marrow contains stem cells which can turn into what cells?
RED BLOOD CELLS to replace faulty ones.-used in blood deifies patients.
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What does meristems produce?
They produce unspecilased cells..
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Where are meristems found in a plant?
They are found where a plant is growing.
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What is the names for the water and food transport tissues cell called?
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What is phototropism?
Phototropism is growth towards or away from light.
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if something is positively phototropism, does it grow towards or away form light?
Towards light.
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Are shoots positively or negatively phototropism?
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What are roots in term go phototropism?
they are negatively phototropism.
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What are auxins? (simple definition)
auxins are plant growth hormones.
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what are auxins? (complex definition)
Auxins are chemicals that control growth near the tip of shoots and roots.
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True or False- Auxins stimulate in the side thats shaded?
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How do auxins cause the plant to grow towards the light?
Because it grows on the shaded part, this makes the cells grow faster on the shaded part, so the shoots grow towards the light.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what is each strand made up of?


Each strand is made up of lots of small units called nucleotides

Card 3


How many different bases does DNA have?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Name the bases.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Which bases always pair together?


Preview of the front of card 5
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