What is the role of the internal skeleton in vertebrates?
Provides support, enables movement, protects internal organs.
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What are bones? What is muscle?
Bones = rigid tissues that make up the skeleton. Muscle = tissue that contracts and relaxes.
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What are ligaments? What are tendons?
Ligaments = tough, fibrous, elastic connective tissues that connect bone together in a joint. Allow movement+at same time hold bones of joint in position. Tendons = tough, fibrous, elastic connective tissues that connect muscle-bone or muscle-muscle.
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How do muscles move bones?
By contracting, so they work in antagonistic pairs (i.e. one muscle contracts whilst other relaxes).
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What are some examples of muscles working in antagonistic pairs?
To lift lower arm = biceps contract + triceps relax. To lower arm = tricpes contract + biceps relaxes.
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What would happen if the tendon connecting the triceps was cut?
Triceps wouldn't be able to contract and arm would remain in up position.
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What is cartilage? Where is it found?
Is a tough connective tissue that helps reduce wear and tear in a joint by preventing bones rubbng together. Found as a smooth layer covering joints.
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What is a synovial fluid?
An oily fluid that enables joint to move freely by reducing friction and cushioning the joint against bumps and knocks.
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Why are practitioners (e.g. doctors, opticians) specially trained?
To help you maintain and improve your heath and fitness.
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What must a practitioner know before they can prescribe treatment?
They must know about a patient's medical or lifestyle history.
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What factors must a practioner consider and why? (3/5)
Current meds bc different meds can conflict with each other. Alcohol consumption bc excessive intake can cause weight gain, damage to liver + kidneys, interference with some meds. Tobacco consumption bc linked with lung cancer, heart disease, high bp
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What factors must a practioner consider and why?
family medical history bc some conditions can be inherited/genetic. Previous treatments bc if you have recurring symptoms you may need differnet diagnosis or to see a specialist.
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What are other ways of treating a diagnosis?
Greater levels of fitness, period of recovery, rehabilitation
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What must a practitioner consider when deciding which treatment to prescribe?
The known risks against the benefits gained.
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Why must the patient be made aware of the risks and liklihood of success?
So they can make an informed decisions before consenting.
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Why does a treatment or fitness training programme need to be monitored?
To check that it's having the desired effect. It can then be modified depending on the patient's progress.
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Why might a programme be modified before completion?
If patitent is finding programme too hard (problem could continue or new injury could occur), or if patient is finding programme too easy (progress would be slow and patient may not recover fast enough).
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What is one way of monitoring progress during training?
To measure pulse rate or aerobic fitness of patient/client.
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What should a patient who is increasing their aerobic fitness do?
Lower their heart rate and have a faster recovery rate. resting bp should also be reduced by a fitness programme.
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What are the advantages of regular contact between a patient and a practitione?
Practitioner has opportunity to become more familiar with medical history and background of patitent. Patient will feel more comfortable and reassured if see same practitioner.
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What happens when patient is called back after treatment or training is complete?
Questions about progress and issues are asked abd sometimes tests carried out (e.g. pulse rate might be checked).
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What is the formula for BMI and what is BMI used for?
BMI = Body mass (kg)/ [Height (m)]^2 Used as a fitness indicator.
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What can a BMI number be compared with?
A chart to provide a simple indicator of fitness level.
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Can a BMI measure body-fat levels?
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What do you need to measure body-fat levels?
A simple metre.
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What would an excess of body fat indicate?
Poor fitness.
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Why might practitioners disagree about treatment or fitness programmes and their effects?
Due to their previous experiences with patients, or due to values such as BMI ony being an indicator of fitness levels.
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Why is it essential that accurate records are kept during treatment or fitness training?
Because the records can be used to assess progress and determine trends.
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What are the possible effects of inaccurate records?
Could slow down progress or even worsen a condition.
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What do progress records need to take into account?
The accuracy and repeatability of the recording techniques.
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What injuries could a person cause themselves if they over exert themselves by doing excessive exercise?
Sprains, dislocations, torn ligaments or tendons.
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What are the symptoms of a sprain?
Swelling (due to fluid build up at site of sprain), pain (joint hurts + may throb), redness and warmth caused by increased blood flow to injured area.
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What is the treatment for a sprain?
RICE - rest, ice (placed for short periods + wrapped in suitable fabric that prevent ice burns, as reduces swelling and bleeding), compression (gentle pressure to reduce fluid build up), elevation (to reduce bp so less blood flow + swelling).
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What does a physiotherapist specialise in?
Treatment of skeletal-muscular injuries.
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What do physiotherapists help people to do?
Retrain/re use part of body that isn't functioning properly by giving them exercises to strengthen muscles that have become weakened.
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What would the exercise programme be to treat an injured leg?
Warm joint by riding exercise bike then straighten + raise leg, extend leg when sitting, raise leg when lying on foor, exercise in pool (e.g. walk fast as possible in chest deep water, do small flutter kicks while holding onto side of pool, etc.)
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What are the four components of blood?
Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, plasma
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What is the function of red blood cells?
Carry oxygen, packed with red pigment, haemoglobin which binds with oxygen. Have no nucleus so more room for haemoglobin. Have bioconcave shape to increase surface area for more efficient uptake of oxygen.
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What is the function of white blood cells?
Fight infection and defend body against microorganisms
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What is the function of platelets?
Clot together at injury sutes to prevent blood loss.
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What is the function of plasma?
Liquid that transports nutrients (e.g. glucose, mineral salts and amino acids, hormones, antibodies and waste (e.g. co2 and urea) around body.
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What is most of the heart wall made of? Why is the left side more muscular than the right?
Mucsle. As it pumps blood around body, right only pumps blood to lungs.
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What are the four chambers of the heart?
2x atria = smaller, less muscular upper chambers that receive blood coming back to heart from veins. 2x ventricles = larger, more muscular lower chambers that pump blood out of heart
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What does the heart muscle need a good blood supply of for respiration?
Oxygen and glucose.
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What is the oxygen and glucose for the heart supplied by?
The coronary artery = branch from aorta to heart muscle.
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What is the cardiac cycle?
-Heart muscles relax and blood flows into atria through veins from lungs and rest of body, atria contract + squeeze blood into ventricles, ventricles contract + blood forced out of lower chambers +out of heart to body. Muscles relax+process restarts.
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What do the valves in the heart and veins ensure?
That blood flows in right direction and not backwards.
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What kind of circulation system do humans have and what does this mean?
Double circulation system, meaning blood returns to heart twice on every circuit of body.
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Where is the blood coming from when it enters the right side, what kind of blood is it and where is it the pumped to?
Comes from body, is deoxygenated and is pumped to lungs to become oxygenated.
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Where is the blood coming from when it enters the left side, what kind of blood is it and where is it the pumped to?
Comes from lungs, is oxygenated and is pumped to body.
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What does the double circulation system deliver and take away to and from the muscles?
Delivers glucose and oxygen and carries away waste products like carbon dioxide.
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What are the three types of blood vessel?
Arteries, veins and capillaries.
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What are arteries and what is their function?
Carry blood away from heart to organs, have thick elastic walls to cope with high bp coming from heart. Substances cannot pass through artery walls.
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What are veins and what is their function?
Carry blood from organs to heart, have thinner + less elastic walls and have valves to prevent back flow of blood. Substances cannot pass through vein walls.
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What are capillaries and what is their function?
Connect arteries to veins, have narrow + thin wall that is only one cell thick. Exchange of substances between cells and blood takes place here.
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What does the plasma of arterial blood contain?
The dissolved products from digestion
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What is found around body tissues?
Capillary beds = networks of capillaries.
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What is the blood flow like in capillary beds and what effect does this have on the plasma?
Blood flow = very slow so plasma leaves and bcomes tissue fluid.
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What does tissue fluid do?
Enables nutrients required by cells (e.g. glucose needed for repiration, oxygen and hormones) to diffuse into tissue cells. Collects and carries away some cellular waste products such as co2 and urea.
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What happens to most tissue fluid?
Returns to capillary bed where it again becomes plasma and continues its journey through body but this time in veins.
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Why does energy loss and gain from your body need to be balanced?
So body temp remains constant.
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What tends to be cooler than your core body temp? Why?
The temp of your body's extremities. As energy is transferred from blood to tissues when reaches cooler parts.
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What does controlling body temp require?
Temp receptors in skin (to detect external temp), Temp receptors in brain (to measure temp of blood), The brain (acts as processing centre to receive info from temp receptors and respond by triggering effectors), Effectors -e.g. sweat glands + muscle
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What needs to be done if your body temperature is too high?
Heat needs to be transferred to environment. Done by sweating as evaporation from skin requires heat energy from body.
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What needs to be done if your body temperature is too low?
Body will start to shiver (rapid contraction and release of muscles). These contractions require energy from increased respiration + heat is released as by product, warming surrounding tissue.
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Where in your brain is blood temperature monitored?
The hypothalamus
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What is vasodilation?
Where blood vessels in skin dilate in hot conditions, allowing more blood to flow through skin capillaries meaning more heat is lost from surface of skin through radiation.
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What is vasoconstriction?
Blood vessels in skin constrict in cold conditions, reducing amount of blood flow through skin capillaries, meaning less heat lost from surface of skin by radiation.
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What are the responses of vasodilation and vasoconstriction examples of?
Effectors working antagonistically (opposite to each other) to change blood flow near skin surface, allowing a sensitive and controlled response. in this case gradual change in blood flow, depending on stimulus, so body temp doesn't get too high.
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What is found in the blood after the digestion of carbohydrates?
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What is the role of the pancreas?
deals with rising blood sugar level by releasing insulin (a hormone).
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What does insulin do?
Makes cells remove sugar from blood.
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What do cells use sugar for?
Functions such as respiration.
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What happens if the hormone release of insulin from the pancreas goes wrong?
It leads to diabetes.
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What are the two types of diabetes?
1= occurs when pancreas stops producing enough insulin. Often genetic, controlled by insulin injectors and diet. 2= occurs when body stops responding to its own insulin or doesn't make enough. caused by old age or poor diet/obesity.
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What is type 2 diabetes often referred to as and how is it controlled?
As late onset diabetes. Controlled by diet and exercise.
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What are sugars called that are found in processed foods?
Simple carbohydrates
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What are sugars called that are found in foods like fruit?
Comples carbohydrates
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What do simple carbohydrates do?
Release sugar quickly into bloodstream, causing rapid rise in blood suar level.
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What do complex carbohydrates do?
Release suagr more slowly into bloodstream so more likely to help maintain a constant sugar level.
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Where is soluble fibre found and what can it do?
In fruits, oats and beans. Can release suagr slowly from digestion in intenstine and can help prevent blood sugar levels becoming too high.
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What may an unhealthy diet lead to?
Diabetes, obesity, heart disease, some cancers (e.g. bowel).
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What can regular exercise help to do and why?
Maintain a healthy body mass and fitness as it helps to use up sugar, rather than store it.
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Why is there no waste in a perfect, stable ecosystem?
As the output from one part of the system becomes the input to another part. Waste materials from one part are used as food/reactants by another.
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What kind of ecosystem is this known as?
A closed loop system.
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What must be balanced in a stable ecosystem?
Any output (loss) must be balanced by input (gain).
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What are the waste products in any natural ecosystem (e.g. rainforest)?
Oxygen -from photosynthesis, used in respiration. CO2 - from respiration, used in photosynthesis. Dead matter -used directly as food or decomposed by microorganisms.
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What must organisms produce in order to survive? Why?
Large quantities of reproductive structures (e.g. eggs, pollen, fruit). To ensure successful reproduction.
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Why are microorganisms important in the recycling of waste?
They digest +break down many different enzymes. They have many digestive enzymes that other organisms lack, e.g. breaking down cellulose and wood, which couldn't be reused in the system otherwise.
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Why are no systems perfect?
As some output is always lost (e.g. animals migrating or nutrients being washed away in rivers)
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Why are natural ecosystems important to humans?
They provide: - food, clean air and oxygen from actions of plants and microorganisms, clean water.
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How can human activity upset the natural balance of an ecosystem?
By changing inputs and outputs.
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What are examples of humans changing inputs in an ecosystem?
Using fertilisers - minerals in fertilisers can be washed into rivers+streams, leading to stagnant water unable to support life. -burning fossil fuels adds CO2+increases climate change. -domestic+industrial waste releases harmful chemicals.
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What are examples of humans changing outputs in an ecosystem?
-removal of nonrecycled waste -deforestation/timber harvesting -fishing (depleting stocks of fish for food) -agriculture (removing natural vegetation for crops/livestock
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Why are systems that have human activity not closed?
As inputs +outputs aren't balanced.
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What may the removal of vegetation cause? 1/4
Soil erosion-natural veg binds soil by root system+foliage protects from direct rainfall. Without, soil can be washed away, leading to desertification.Eroded soil can silt up rivers causing course change/lose flow rate so affecting aquatic life.
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What may the removal of vegetation cause? 2/4
Loss of biodiversity-different plants in vegetation support many food chains+provide habitats for wide variety of organisms. Replacing with crop/livestock reduces diversity of plants=animals.
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What may the removal of vegetation cause? 3/4
build up of CO2- less photosynthesis so less CO2 removed. Accumulates in atmosphere, causing climate change (greenhouse effect)
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What may the removal of vegetation cause? 4/4
Changes in weather-temp=rainfall affected by vegetation such as rainforests. trees lose water, causing cloud formation+rain in other areas. Rainforests help prevent temp extremes as density of veg keeps it stable.
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What may overfishing cause?
Loss of biodiversity leading to reduction in food resources, accumulation of organisms that would have been eaten by fish may have harmful effects on resources available.
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How may minerals build up in water + what is it affect on algae?
Minerals may be leached from fields into rivers. It built up in slow/non moving water and so allows faster rate of algae growth.
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What is the process of eutrophication?
-At first fast algae growth promotes life as more food available-As algae die decay MO's use up oxygen in water as respiration. -reduction in O2 levels causes larger organisms to die, they use oxygen in their decay-Leads to O2 levels too low for life
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How does bioaccumulation occur? 1-3/4
-Small amounts of toxic waste may be taken up by plants+stored in leaves/fruits/seeds-Animals eat plants+as eat lots of plants, chemical stored in body=higher than single plant.-Animals eaten by other animals+they accumulate even more chemical level.
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How does bioaccumulation occur? 4/4
-Animals at top of food chain badly affected as chemical reaches harmful level in bodies.
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What are examples of bioaccumulation at the top of the food chain?
Sparrowhawk shells become brittle +break when female sits on them, reducing number of sparrowhawks.-High mercury levels in some humans linked to psychological issues and even death.
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How can the use of natural materials be sustainable?
If materials are replaced at same rate as used.
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Why can't the use of crude oil be sustainable?
As crude oil takes millions of years to form from decay of dead organisms. As energy released from burning oil was 'fossil sunlight energy' as it originated from Sun when organisms were alive.
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How can the removal of trees be sustainable?
If trees are replanted as older ones felled.
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How can fish stocks be kept at sustainable levels?
By the use of quotas (restricting amount of fish allowed to be caught) so remaining fish can reproduce to replace those caught. Fish can be grown in artificial conditions + used to restock over fished areas.
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Where will there always be conflict?
Between the needs of local human communities and the need to conserve the natural ecosystem.
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Therefore, what kind of compromises should be reached?
Ones that support the livelihoods of the local people and at same time maintain balance of ecosystem.
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What is important to remember?
That radiation from Sun is energy source for most biological systems on Earth and that energy can only be transformed or transferred: cannot be created or destroyed.
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What is a fermenter?
A controlled environment that has ideal conditions for microorganisms to live in, feed and produce the proteins needed.
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What are some of the industrial quantities of products that fermenters can produce?
Antibiotics+other medicines, single cell proteins, enzymes that can be use in food production, enzymes that can be used in washing powders to digest stains, enzymes to make biofuels such as ethanol to use in cars or methane gas to produce electricity
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Why are bacteria ideal for using in genetic and industrial processes?
As have simple biochemistry (easier to work with), reproduce quickly (so produce end product of process quickly+in large amounts, have ability to make complex molecules from simple ones, possess DNA as plasmids (modification ease), no ethical issues.
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What does DNA contain?
The code for the protein a particular organism needs. Proteins produced by one organism may not be produced by another.
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What can be done by carrying out genetic modification?
The gene that produces a desirable protein can be inserted into another organism so that it too produces the right protein.
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How is genetic modification carried out?
-Desired gene selected+isolated-Desired gene inserted into suitable vector(virus/plasmid-circular DNA molecule found in some bacteria)-Vector allowed to reproduce-Vectors inserted into new cells-From all, those with modified characteristics chosen.
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What could genetic modification have the potential to do? 1-3/6
Produce healthier crops w greater yields, produce disease resistant crops (reduce need for pesticide), enable some crops to naturally carry vaccines so no need to refrigerate, allow organisations to monitor relase+spread of genetically modified crops
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What could genetic modification have the potential to do? 4-6/6
Allow organisations to monitor relase+spread of genetically modified crops by looking for antibiotic resistant markers.Enable som drugs to be made from human DNA. Make some crops resistant to herbicide so other plants killed by spraying but not crop
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What could making som crops resistant to herbicide lead to?
higher yields and easier harvesting
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What is the method used for genetic testing? 1/3
-DNA isolated from nucleus of white blood cell, DNA amplified so is enough material to experiment with, then broken into different sized pieces.
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What is the method used for genetic testing? 2/3
Gene probe created (a single stranded DNA or RNA sequence that has bases that pair up with complementary bases on the target gene. Probe will only attach if desired gene is present in sample so acts as a marker.
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What is the method used for genetic testing? 3/3
Ultraviolet light is used to locate the marker if the probe has a marker that causes it to fluoresce when UV light is shone onto it.
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What is nanotechnology and how can it be used?
Is the science of working with extremely sall structures (only size of some molecules). Can be used in many different ways including in medicine and food industry.
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What are examples of the application of nanotechnology in the food industry? 1/2
-Building biosensors in packaging to monitor food quality by detecting harmful microorganisms+perhaps changing colour as a warning, ensuring microorganisms don't enter food chain+extends shelf life.
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What are examples of the application of nanotechnology in the food industry? 2/2
Using nanoparticles in packaging (e.g. adding silver to act as an antimicrobial coating to stop decay organisms attacking food+increasing shelf life.
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What are stem cells and what can they do?
Are cells that are completely unspecialised. Can potentially devleop into any specialised cell, can be found in developing embryos, umbilical cord+in adult tissue, e.g. bone marrow
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What are some uses of stem cell technology?
Bonemarrow transplants(stemcells used to stimulate regeneration of whiteblood cells in treatment of leukaemia),treating spinal cord injuries(heal damage by helping regenerate neurons),using cell culture(cells grown+transformed into new tissues/organs
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What does biomedical engineering involve?
Using engineering techniques+ideas to solve medical problems.
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What does biomedical engineering include? 1/2
Pacemakers(electrical devices usually implanted under skin to replace heart's own pacemaker region(the sinoatrial node)to maintain an adequate+regular heartbeat).
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What does biomedical engineering include? 2/2
Replacement heart valves-devices that keep the blood flow within the heart efficient if a natural valve malfunctions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are bones? What is muscle?


Bones = rigid tissues that make up the skeleton. Muscle = tissue that contracts and relaxes.

Card 3


What are ligaments? What are tendons?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How do muscles move bones?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are some examples of muscles working in antagonistic pairs?


Preview of the front of card 5
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