B5h: Growth and Repair

We start life as a microscopic fertilised egg and grow at different rates at different times of our lives and are sometimes surprised to find we have reached a height of nearly two metres. However, as people live longer, parts of their bodies wear out or go wrong. This item encourages discussion about possible treatments and ethical issues involved. It also provides the opportunity to debate the issues. 

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In which two ways can growth be measured?
Height and mass
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What six things affect a person's final height and mass?
Disease, health, diet, exercise, hormones and their genes.
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Describe the main stages of human growth.
Infancy (up to two years), childhood (two to eleven years), adolescence/puberty (eleven to thirteen/fifteen years), maturity/adulthood (the longest stage) and old age (above sixty/sixty-five years)
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Under what two circumstances is it necessary to replace body parts with mechanical/biological parts?
Disease or Trauma.
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What four mechanical replacements are used outside the body?
Kidney dialysis, mechanical ventilators, heart and lung machines.
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Can organs be donated by both dead and living donors?
Yes.
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What two things are extremes of heights usually caused by?
Genes or hormone imbalance.
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How can diet influence growth?
A poor diet, if it's low in proteins (needed to make new cells) or minerals (for bone growth), may mean that a child doesn't grow as much as its genes would allow.
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How can exercise influence growth?
Exercise builds muscle, and weight-bearing exercise can increase bone mass. Exercise also stimulates the release of growth hormones.
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The different parts of a foetus and baby grow at different rates - give an example.
The brain/head grows faster than the rest of the body.
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Why are a baby's length, mass and head size regularly monitored during their first few months?
To provide early warning of growth problems.
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What is the use of average growth charts?
The chart shows a number of 'percentiles'. E.g. the 50th percentile shows the mass that 50% of babies will have reached at a certain age.
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What three factors do doctors start to worry about the growth of babies?
If the baby's size is above the 98th percentile, below the 2nd percentile or an inconsistent pattern, (a very small baby with a very large head).
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Name the six possible causes of the increase in life expectancy during recent times?
Less industrial disease, healthier diet and lifestyle, modern treatments, cures for disease and better housing.
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How is the human growth hormone produced and stimulated?
It is produced by the pituitary gland and it stimulates the growth of the whole body - especially the growth of the long bones.
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Describe possible consequences of more people living longer.
As population grows-possible shortages of housing&environmental pollution forms. As number of older people increase,the state may not be able to give pensions to everyone,they have more medical problems&need more care-increasing costs to the taxpayer
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Explain the four problems in supply of donor organs.
Size, age, tissue match and shortage of donors.
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Explain the four problems of using mechanical replacements.
They usually need a constant power supply, they're often large and difficult to move around, they must be made of materials that won't harm the body or degrade (break down/rust), even then they can cause inflammation or allergic reactions.
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Describe the ethical issues concerning organ donation.
People think 4 religious reasons that a body should be buried intact,or think life/death is up 2 God. Some worry that doctors won't save them if theyre critically ill&their organs are needed. Some worry they may get pressured into bein a living donor
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Describe the problem with transplants.
As the patient's immune system often recognises the new organ as 'foreign' it attacks
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Describe how the problem with transplants can be reduced.
The donor should have a similar tissue type to patient, (similar antigens), a 'close tissue match.' They use immuno-suppressive drugs that suppress the patients immune system to help stop donor organ being rejected-leaves more vulnerable to infection
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Explain why donors can be living.
Living donors can donate whole/parts of certain organs. E.g. you can live with just one kidney or donate a piece of your liver.
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What makes a suitable living donor?
Relatively young - organ is fit and healthy, similar body weight, close tissue match - tend to be a family member.
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Describe the criteria needed for a dead person to be a suitable donor.
Must have died very recently - few hours and must have permission from close relatives. (same criteria as living)
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Describe the register of NHS organ donors.
You join to show you're willing to donate organs after you die, doctors still need our family's consent. Some people think it should be made easier by having an opt-out system.
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What is an opt-out system?
Anyone's organs can be used unless the person has registered to say they don't want them to be donated.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What six things affect a person's final height and mass?

Back

Disease, health, diet, exercise, hormones and their genes.

Card 3

Front

Describe the main stages of human growth.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Under what two circumstances is it necessary to replace body parts with mechanical/biological parts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What four mechanical replacements are used outside the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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