B5 - organs and blood

B5 OCR gateway b - blood and organs section

What are the characteristics of a living donor?
- have to be alive - fit & health - over 18 - good tissue match
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What are the characteristics of a dead donor?
- died recently - fit/healthy - tissue match - family permission
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What is a xenotransplant?
a transplant from an animal e.g. pig heart
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What is rejection?
When the immune system starts to attack the new transplant as the body doesn't accept it
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How can you reduce the chance of rejection?
immunosuppresive drug to disable the immune system
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What are the ethical issues surrounding organ donation/transplant?
1. religion - the body should be buried in tack/god choses when you die. 2. people think if they are critically ill the doctor may not try to save them (want organ). 3. pressured - if a relative needs it
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Describe the issue surround organ supply and demand
supply doesn't meet the demand
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What is the Opt out system for organ donation?
government are thinking or replacing the opt in system so that everyone is a donor unless they chose not to be (instead of the other way round - current)
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How are blood clots formed?
Palets come into contact with damaged blood vessels causing a series of chemical reactions (fibrinogen ----> fibrin) leading to a mesh of fibrin fibres
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What do anticoagulants do?
stop excessive clotting which could lead to strokes
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Give examples of an anticoagulant.
warafin/heparin/asprin
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What is haemophillia?
An inherited condition caused by the absence of clotting factor so the blood does not easily clot
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What are the 4 blood groups?
AB, B, A, O
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What does an antigen do?
trigger an immune response (it is a protein)
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what is an agglutination?
clumping of red blood cells - caused when mixing wrong blood groups
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Where are antibodies found?
in the blood plasma
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When is the rhesus factor present?
when the blood is positive.
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does group AB have any antibodies?
no - just AB antigens
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what antibodies does blood group O have?
anti-AB
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What group is the universal donor?
blood group O
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What group is the universal receiver?
blood group AB
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the characteristics of a dead donor?

Back

- died recently - fit/healthy - tissue match - family permission

Card 3

Front

What is a xenotransplant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is rejection?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can you reduce the chance of rejection?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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