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what are three types of skeleton?
exoskeleton, internal skeleton and no skeleton
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what do internal skeletons do for our body?
provide support, grow with the body, attach to muscles and joints allow flexibility
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what is cartlidge? what in a humans body is made from cartlidge??
living tissue, ears, nose
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what sort of skeleton do insects have? what are they made from?
external chitin
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whats inside a long bone?what are the properties of a long bone?
nothing they are hollow, they are strong and weigh less
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what is ossification?
when bones start out as cartlidge in the embryo and they then grow once you grow up as you gain calcium and phosphurus salts
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what are the 3 different types of fracture? what do they mean?
simple fracture-bones break easily. greenstick-bone doesnt brake completely. compound-breaks through the muscle and skin
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what is the condition called when the bones become weaker? when does this normally happen?
as you get older its when the bones bcome weaker
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whatdo ligaments do??
join bones to other bones
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what do tendons do?
attach muscle to bones
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what are the different types of joints? whats are examples?
hinge joints=elbow and knee- bend in one direction. ball and socket joints=shoulder and hip-allows rotation
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when the arm bends snd extends what do the triceps and biceps do?
when you bend your arm the bicep contracts and the tricep relaxes, when you stretch out you arm the tricep contracts and thr bicep relaxes
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what type of circlatory systems do humans have? whats the cycle?
a double circlatory system.right side of heart to the lungs and back. left side to heart and body and back
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how many chambers does the heart have in a doible circlatory system?
4 chambers
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what does the coronary artery do?
supplies heart with oxygen and glucose
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what does the pulmonary vein do?
carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
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what does the aorta do?
carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body
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what does the vena cave do?
carries deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body to the heart
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what does the pulmonary artery do?
carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to lungs
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is it true that the vein has a thick elasticated wall?
no its false, the arteries have them
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what are the three steps when the heart takes a beat?
1. heart relaxes when blood goes to atria and veins. the antriventricular valves open. 2. the atria contracts to push blood into ventricles. 3.ventricles then contract pushing blood into arteries. the semilunar valves open to allow this whilst atric
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where can you measure pulse rate?
your neck, wrist, ear or temple + counting number of pulses in a minutes
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what is the heart beat controlled by? what do they produce?
a set of cells called the pacemaker cells, small electrical impulses whch stimulate the heart to contract
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why does the heart rate speed up during exercise?
the mucles need more oxygen so thr heart beats faster to supply oxygen and glucose to the body
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how can an irregular heart be corrected?
an artificial pacemaker
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what can be done if the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and glucose become blocked by fat?
bypass surgery which is taking vessels rom your leg and replacing the blocked ones in the heart
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what does the hole in the heart cause and how can iit be fixed?
a hole in the heart means oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood mixes. it normally happens at birth and closes up natturally, if not you can have surgery to close it up.
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what are the risks of getting a donor heart if you heart does nit repair?
a major, expensive operation. must be from a dead donor. a long waiting lost for suitable donor. the patient will be on drugs for the rest of their lives
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what are blood clots and why do they happen?
blood clots happen to close a wound so that you dont bleed to death. platelets gather and clump together to form a scab
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what is haemophillia?
when blood fails to clot
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what is a blood transfusion?
if a patient has lost too much blood the right blood type (which has been donated) will be given to the patient.
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what happens if you get the wrong blood type during a blood trnasfusion?
the blood will start to clot inside of your body
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what are the 4 different blood groups?
A, AB, B O
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what must every living organism carry out to get oxygen through aerobic respiration?
gas exchange
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what do fish has to get oxygen into their bodies? what is the process?
their gills. they gulp in water through the mouth and then push it out through the gills
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whats the difference between amphibian babies and adults??
the babies have gills to breathe where as grown up frogs breathe through lungs
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what is the human thorax?
the humans chect cavitiy (llungs)
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what is the pressureof your chest when breathing changed by?
the intercostal muscles and the diaphram
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what is inspiration?
when you breathe in and the intercostal muscles contract and the diaphram flattens
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what is expiration?
when you breath out the intercostal muscles relax and the diaphram also relaxes
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what is tidal air, residual air and vital capcity?
tidal air is the air you can take in a normal breath. residual air is the air that stays in the lungs when you breathe out. and vital capacity is when you take in as much air as possible
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how does gas exchange work in terms of the aveoli?
CO2 diffuses into aveoli, avioli then diffuses new oxygen into the bloodstream.
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how is the aveoli adapted for gas exchange?
a big surface area, moist thing permable surface and excellent blood supply
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what are the two ways of protecting the circlatory system against disease?
mucus to trap dust, cilia which move the contaminated mucus from lungs to throat where it is then swallowed
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name 2 respitory diseases and how they work.
abestosis-caused by inhaling asbestos fibres, get trapped in air sacs. bronchitis-inflamation of the bronchi. lung cnacer- often caused by life style eg smokng. cystic fibroses-genetically inherited
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what is physcial and chemical digestion?
physical-when you physically chew the food to then squeeze into stomach, chemical- when enzymes break down large insoluable molecules.
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what does carohydrase break down and where is it used?
starch into sugars. normally in the mouth and small intesine.
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what does protease break down and wheres it typically found in the body?
proteins into amino acids, stomach and small intestine.
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carbohydrase and protease are already in the small intestine, what is the other one and its jo?
lipase-fats into fatty acids and glycerol
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what is released in the stomach so that the protease works effectively?
hydrochloric acid, to help the enzymes as it is at the right pH
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why is bile produced and what does it do?
bile is produced to emulsify fat droplets and help them digest
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how does the broken down food get into the blood stream?
through the small intestine, it diffuses to the low concerntrated blood.
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what is egestion and excretion?
egestion is when the undigested food comes out of the bum and excretion is when you get rid of waste through sweating and weeing (urea)
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how is urea made ?
produced from amino acids which have been broken down in the liver
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what happens to the blood if you are dehydrated??
it becomes thick and hard to move around the body
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56---what is 1.ultrafilteration, 2.selective reabsorption and 3.salt reabsorption?where does this all take place?
in the kidney tublubes and the nephron.1.blood in renal arterie->glumerous (high pressure)->water forced to bowmans capsule->(glumorous in bowmans capsual allows high pressure). 2.glucose->absorbed to blood->(tulube folded to allowed stuff to the
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56---carried on
blood. 3.hairpin bend of loop of henley is where water is.
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what hormone controlls the amount of water content in the blood? where is it produces?
ADH-anti-diuretic hormone and produced in the pituatory gland
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what is a dialysis machine and what does it do?
it removes urea from patient with kiney failiure. blood taken from vein, goes close to permable membrane which then sepreates blood from dialysis solution waste is then in the dialysis fluid
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what are the 4 stages of the uterus linig?
uterus lining breaking down- (period). wall gradually thickens. egg released from overies (ovulation). Utereus stays thick getting ready to fertilise, if not the cycle starts again.
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what are FSH and LH, where are they produced and what do they do?
FSH-stimulates egg to ripen in ovary releases oestrogen. LH-controls ovulation. produces porgesterone. BOTH FROM PITUATRIY GLAND IN BRAIN
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how can fertility be controlled in humans and how does it work?
contraceptive pills and they work by copying pregnancy and stopping the release of FSH
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what can infertility be caused by?
blocked fallopian tubes or sperm ducts, eggs not being made or being released from ovaries, no fertile sperm
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what are some methods that can help infertility?
FSH being injected into woman to ripen eggs, artificial insemiation when spem is directly put into uterus, IVF when sperm and eggs mixed outside body, surrogacy when someone else has the embryo of child in them
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what is an amniocentesis? what is a hypodermic needle?
analyse cells from embryo from amniotic fluid. injected into the into the amniotic fluid to check for downs or any other chromosome abnormilities.
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where do donated organs usuallt come from? what could be a problem with thhis?
dead donars but sometime the family dont believe in it so they are taken off the register and their organs arent donated.
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what are the 5 stages o growth within a humans lifetime??
infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age
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how can you meausure human growth?
mass or heigt
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what factors can affect human growth?
your genes, diet, amount of exercise, amount of growth hormone, how healthy you are, hormones, dieseases/conditions
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why is diet and exercise important?
contains protein for muscle growth and calcium and vitamin d for bone growth. exercise normally increases muscle growth and makes bones more dense
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What are the problems asociated with living longer?
arthiritus, cancer, difficult to live by themselves, pensioners live on low income,
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what factors must be considered before having a transplant?
orgns being healthy, the right size and age, good tissues to match your own
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Card 2

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what do internal skeletons do for our body?

Back

provide support, grow with the body, attach to muscles and joints allow flexibility

Card 3

Front

what is cartlidge? what in a humans body is made from cartlidge??

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what sort of skeleton do insects have? what are they made from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

whats inside a long bone?what are the properties of a long bone?

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Comments

/Lucas/Austin/

Very good!!!

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