what happens in the cytoplasm?
its where the chemical reaction takes place
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what does the cell membrane do?
it allows movement in and out of the cell
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which part of a cell carries the genetic information?
the nucleus
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where in a cell does respiration take place?
in the mitochondria, it supplies energy for the cell.
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which cells can you find mitochondria?
sperm cells, muscle cells.
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where does protein synthesis take place?
the ribosomes
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what is a gene and where are they found?
they are found in the chromosomes in the nucleus of every cell. a gene control a certain characteristic
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how can you describe chromosomes?
long coiled molecules of DNA
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how many chromosomes do many humans have?
23 matching pairs
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what does DNA control?
the production of proteins - for growth and repair
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genes re carries round in genetic code, what does genetic code control?
cell activity and sometimes characteristics of the organism
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how can you describe DNA
a double helix
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what are the 4 bases in DNA and how do the pair up?
ACGT- A bonds with T. G bonds with T.
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who worked out the structure of DNA?
two scientists, watson and crick
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where are proteins made in the cell
the cytoplasm
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because genes cant leave the nucleus, what happens so they can leave?
the gene gets copied and then the copy leaves the nucleus.
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what are proteins made out of?
long chains of amino acids
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what are the functions of proteins?
for hormones - insulin. enzymes. carrier molecules - haemoglobin
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what are enzymes and what do they do?
they are biological catalysts, speeding up the process of chemical reactions in cells such as : respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis.
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is it true that enzymes will speed up any reaction?
false. they speed up particular reactions.
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how can the enzyme and rate of reaction be affected?
temperature and pH levels
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what is the lock and key mechanism?
when an enzyme fits into the specific site for the reaction to speed up
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how can the lock and key be affected?
highe temperatures and extreme pH will denature the site of the enzyme therefor stopping them interlocking with each other.
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what is optimum pH of an enzyme?
the rate at which it works best
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what can damage the enzyme molecules irreversibly?
the pH being higher than optimum levels,
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what is the temperature at which the enzymes in the body work best?
37 degrees
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what are gene mutations?
changes to a gene
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what environmental factors affect and increase mutations of genes?
radiation or chemicals
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what do mutations do to the DNA?
it changes the base of the DNA. it alters the shape and function of the protein
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what is aerobic respiration?
the release of energy from glucose in the presence of oxygen, it normally takes place inside of the cells.
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what is the chemical formula for aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 + O2 --> CO2 +H2O
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what is anerobic respiration?
when your muscles are working hard that your lungs and circulatory system cant deliver enough oxygen to break down all the glucose in the glucose in aerobic respiration.
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What is the word and symbol equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose --> lactic acid + small amount of energy released
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what is an advantage of being a multicell organism?
allows organisms to be larger, can allow cell differentiation and therefor can be more complex,
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what are examples of a multi cell organism?
animals and humans
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what are diploid cells?
when the cell contains matching pairs of chromosomes
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what are haploid cells??
they only contain one set of chromosomes
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what does sperm contain to make them move?
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what are the steps to mitosis?
its needed to replace worn out cells, repair damaged tissue and asexual reproduction. each chromosome replicates itself, the split to either side of the cell and then divide.
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what is meiosis?
the chromosomes part and moveto opposite sides, the cell divides for the first time, it copies again and then seperates again. now 4 haploid cells are made
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what are the four components to the blood?
platelets - clump together to help danaged skin and cause a blood clot. PLASMA- transports food +glucose+water=hormones etc. WHITE BLOOD CELLS- protect body against disease. RED BLOOD CELLS- transport oxygen from lungs to the tissues
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what are the uses for capillaries, veins and arteries?
arteries- carry blood away from the heart. veins-carries blood to the heart. capillaries-exchanges materials with tissue.
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what is the cycle of the heart?
right hand side pumps blood (low in oxygen) to lungs and back. The left side which has lots of oxygen to the rest of the body and back.
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is it the arteries or veins that are under higher pressure when blood is pumped through them?
the arteries because they can handle the high pressure due to the thick elasticated wall
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is the right or left ventricle more muscular? why?
the left because its under higher pressure to pump around the body comapred to the right which only pumps blood to the lungs and back
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what does the atria do?
receives blood coming back to the heart through the veins (as these always lead towards the heart)
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whats in a plant cell?
nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, chlloroplasts, cellulose cell wall and vacuole
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how do animmals increase in size?
by increasing the number of cells
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if plants grow in a in the right conditons what happens? whats the difference between this and animals?
they carry on gorwing through their lifetime, the difference is that animals grow and then stop once theyve reached a maximum size.
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what are stem cells?
cells which can develop into into different cells, tissues and organs.
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where can you find stem cells?
they can be obtained from the embryonic tissues of a stem cells
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what is selcetive breeding?
choosing two animals with favourable characteristics and making them mate to produce desired offspring. it can take many generations to get what they want
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what is genetic engerneering?
where genes can be artificially transferred from one organism to another.
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what are the advantages and disadvantages of genetic engeneering?
ADVANTAGES- new features to be made quickly DISADVANTAGES- they could have unexpected harmful effects
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why may people not let this happen?
GM foods may not be safe, babies with faults to be aborted, could make 'designer babies'
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what is gene therapy?
when the genes in the person having the treatment and any offspring is treated and made to have genetic engeneering
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what does asexual reproduction involve?
plants are an example as they can reproduce without sex cells
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what is cloning an example of/
asexual reproduction?
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what is an example of a mammal to be sucessfully cloned?
dolly the sheep
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what are the benefits and risks of cloning?
BENEFITS- the sex and timing of animals being concieved can be controlled, top quality animals can be saved from childbirth and the less effective can conceive the children. RISKS- causes genetic variation, are identical copies (could die from same d
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what is a possibilty if humans dont have any doners?
to genetically engineer (alter genetic code) of an animal making it suitable for the human body meaning it wont be rejected.
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what are the factors of concern for using animals as doners to humans?
infection may be passed, ethical issues.... animal rights etc
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Card 2


what does the cell membrane do?


it allows movement in and out of the cell

Card 3


which part of a cell carries the genetic information?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


where in a cell does respiration take place?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


which cells can you find mitochondria?


Preview of the front of card 5
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