B3

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  • Created by: Biancaa
  • Created on: 10-05-14 22:50
What is osmosis?
the diffusion of water from a low to high concentration through a partially permeable membrane.
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How are exchange surfaces adapted?
short diffusion path, efficient blood supply, large surface area, good ventilation (for gas)
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What happens when you exhale?
intercostal muscles contract, ribs move up and out, diaphragm flattens. This increases the volume of the chest. Pressure is lowered in the chest so air is drawn into the lungs.
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What happens when you inhale?
intercostal muscle expand, ribs move down and in, diaphragm relaxes, decreasing the volume of the chest. Pressure increases in the chest and air is forced out.
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Explain negative ventilation
patient is placed into a vacuum neck down, this creates a negative pressure inside the machine and the decrease in pressure. The thorax expands and air is drawn into the lungs. When the vacuum is released, it causes the chest wall to exhale.
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Explain positive ventilation
air is forced into the lungs via tube inserted into the trachea. As the ventilator pumps in, lungs inflate. When the ventilator stops, exhalation.
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What is the advantage of a negative pressure ventilator?
Effective at treating many polio patients over the years
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What is the disadvantage of a negative pressure ventilator?
Patient is confined to the machine.
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What is the advantage of a positive pressure ventilator?
Useful during operations. where surgeons need to access the body. also portable
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What is the disadvantage of a positive pressure ventilator?
long-term ventilation requires the tube to be surgically inserted into the trachea through the neck
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Describe the route of blood through the heart and the lungs
vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, body
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define transpiration?
the process which plants lose water vapour from the surface of their leaves.
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What is plasma?
the liquid part of the blood, transports co2 from organs to lungs, transports flucos and amino acid from the small intestines to other organs, transports urea from the liver to the kidney
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What do red blood cells do?
they transport oxygen from the lungs to the organs
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What makes red blood cells red?
haemoglobin
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What do platelets do?
they help blood clot
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What does xylem do?
transports water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem and leaves
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What does phloem?
phloem carries dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant
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What is the function of kidneys?
to excrete unwanted substances
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How do the kidneys work?
They filter substances out of the blood and then reabsorb the substances (sugar, dissolved ions and water)that the body needs, then releasing the unwanted urea, ions and water in the urine.
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How does kidney dialysis work?
dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of useful substance that the patient's blood (e.g. glucose and mineral ions). This means substances do not don't diffuse out of the blood and don't need to be reabsorbed. Urea diffuses out of blood by ts
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What is the function of kidney dialysis?
it restores the concentration of substances in the blood back to normal, but needs to repeated regularly.
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Why is it important that dialysis fluid contains glucose and mineral ions?
If it was just water, all the useful solutes would diffuse out of the blood as well as the urea.
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What is the advantage of kidney transplants?
more freedom as youre not constantly tied to a machine
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What is the disadvantage of of kidney transplants?
need to take immunosuppressant drugs daily to suppress the immune response, therefore vulnerable to infections. Can be rejected and long wait for kidney donor.
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What monitors and controls body temperature?
the thermoregulatory centre- it has receptors which detect the temperature of the blood flowing through the brain
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What happens when the core temperature rises?
blood vessels dilate near the surface of the skin so theres more blood flow. Energy is transferred by radiation and the skin cools. Also, sweat glands produce more sweat and temperature is emitted along with the water evaporating off.
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What happens when the core temperature drops?
blood vessels near the surface constrict and less blood flows through the skin capillaries. Less heat energy is released
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What detects the low levels of blood glucose?
The pancreas, it then produces glucagon which causes glycogon in the liver to change into glucose
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How is ethanol-based fuels produced?
by anaerobic fermentation of sugars from plants. The ethanol distilled from the fermentation product can be used as fuel in vehicles. It is also carbon-neutral.
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How is biogas (mainly methane) produced?
during anaerobic fermentation (of substance containing carbohydrate) by bacteria
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What is fish stocks used for?
monitoring the amount of fish in the oceans. Fishermen have a strict allocation of fsh per year and must use a cetrain sized net to avoid catching small, young fish.
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What is the fungus fusarium used for?
It's used to produce mjycoprotein- protein-rich food suitable for vegetarium. It's grown aerobically on cheap sugar syrup made from waste starch and the mycoprotein harvested.
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What are herbicides?
chemicals used to kill weeds
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Which gas causes acid rain?
sulfur dioxide
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Why does acid rain often fall a great distance from where it was produced?
the clouds of gas are blown by the wind
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How do soil fertilizers cause damage to rivers?
the fertilizer contains nitrates. Large amounts of nitrates enter the river which alters the balance of chemicals in the water.
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How is methane produced?
by cattle and from growing rice
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When trees are cut down, co2 is released into the atmosphere. Explain how.
Burning trees releases co2. When trees decay, co2 is released due to respiration of microorganism
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Why must urea be removed from the blood?
urea is a toxic substance
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Why do kidneys reabsorb glucose?
glucose is needed by the body for respiration
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What type of membrane is used in a dialysis machine?
partially permeable membrane
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Explain what is meant by a 'good tissue match'
the surface of cells have proteins called antigens. Antibodies recognise foreign antigens and attack them. If the donor kidney has similar antigens, the antibodies from the recipient won't attack.
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Why is it dangerous if the body is too hot or too cold?
The enzymes won't work and will denature.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are exchange surfaces adapted?

Back

short diffusion path, efficient blood supply, large surface area, good ventilation (for gas)

Card 3

Front

What happens when you exhale?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when you inhale?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain negative ventilation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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