B3

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what did Edward jenner discover
cowpox and small pox have similar antigens so after being infected with cowpox you were immune to smallpox. (vaccine started)
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the first step of immunisation
vaccine containing dead pathogen is injected with anitgens on its surface
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second step of immunisation
lymphocyte and antibody fit perfectly and the antigen is activated
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third step of immunisation
lymphocyte divides over and over again produces clones of the lymphocyte
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fourth step of immunisation
lymphocytes secrete large amounts of antibodies. hey stick to antigens and destroy pathogens.
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what happens to the remaining antibodies
memory lymphocytes stay in blood ready to respond to the immediately
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what is monoclonal antibodies
monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that carry useful chemical markers or treatments.
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where do the set of identical monoclonal antibodies come from
hybridoma cells.what
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first reason,what can monoclonal antibodies be used for
pregnancy tests to identify if the pregnancy hormone is present
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another reason;
to stick to blood clots or cancer cells so they can be detected and treated
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why is monoclonal antibodies more useful than radiotherapy when detecting cancer
monoclonal antibodies are more precise and can detect which cells are affected and smaller amounts of drugs are used.
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what does the haploid nucleus contain in the egg cell/sperm cell
one set of genetic material
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what does the cytoplasm contain
it contains nutrients that the embryo will use to grow and develop
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what does the cell membrane do immediately after fertilastion
it changes to block entry of other sperm
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what does the middle section of the sperm contain
mitochondria that releases energy from the respiration to power tail
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whats the acrosome contain in the sperm
contains enzymes to digest a way into the egg
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name 4 infertility treatments
IVF, egg donation, surrogate mother, Hormones
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1 advantage/ disadvantage of IVF
+useful if a man produces only a few healthy sperm./-IVF babies may be bornearly, which can cuase problems at brith/later
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1 advantage/ disadvantage of egg donation
+used when woman of couple has eggs in her ovairies/-hormones used to collect eggs may cause a bad reactio. the egg donor may want access ti the child
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1 advantage/ disadvantage surrogate mother
+used when the woman of the couple cannot grow an embryo in her uterus. - some surrogsate mothers find it hard to give the baby away
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+/- of hormones
+used when the woman hormones are not enough to cause ovulation/-risk of having several babies at the same time. babies born earlier
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Card 2

Front

the first step of immunisation

Back

vaccine containing dead pathogen is injected with anitgens on its surface

Card 3

Front

second step of immunisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

third step of immunisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

fourth step of immunisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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