B3 - Growth and development

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What makes bacterial cells different from plant and animal cells?
They lack a 'true' nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.
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Where is the DNA found in bacterial cells?
Cytoplasm as a single circular strand or chromosome
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When are the phases of rapid growth?
Just after birth and in adolescence
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What is the best measure of growth?
Dry mass
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Measuring growth by length is easy to do - but there is one problem, what is this?
Only measures growth in one direction
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What type of organisms are easy to measure their wet mass?
Animals.
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What is the one issue considered when measuring in wet mass?
The water content of organisms can vary with time.
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What is the one problem with measuring in dry mass?
It involves killing the organism, but it does measure the true growth of the whole organism.
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Why might different parts of the organism grow at different rates compared to the whole organism?
Different parts of the organism may be needed at different times during the life of the organism
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What is an embryo?
An unborn/unhatched offspring.
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What are stem cells?
Obtained from embryos and could potentially be used to treat some medical conditions
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Cells called stem cells stay undifferentiated. What does this mean?
They can develop into different types of cells
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What is an advantage of obtaining stem cells?
To treat life-threatening diseases
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What is a disadvantage of obtaining stem cells?
The embryos are destroyed
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Can stem cells be found in adults as well?
Yes
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Why are embryonic stem cells better?
Can form a greater range of cell types and easier to locate.
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What is the difference between animals and plants in terms of growth size?
Animals tend to grow to a certain size but many plants carry on growing
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What is the difference between animals and plants in terms of where growth happens?
Plant cell division can only happen in areas called meristems, found at the tip of roots and shoots
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What is the difference between animals and plants in terms of how they grow?
Plants generally gain height by cells enlarging rather than dividing
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What is the difference between animals and plants in terms of differentiation?
Many plant cells keep the ability to differentiate but most animal cells lose it at an early stage.
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Card 2

Front

Where is the DNA found in bacterial cells?

Back

Cytoplasm as a single circular strand or chromosome

Card 3

Front

When are the phases of rapid growth?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the best measure of growth?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Measuring growth by length is easy to do - but there is one problem, what is this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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