B2

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What are symptoms?
The effects that an infection has on the body, such as fever or a rash.
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Micro organisms can cause symptoms of a diease by...?
Damage cells or releasing toxins
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What are the two ways of testing for cystic fibrosis?
Amniocentesis And chronic villus
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Do micro organisms reproduce quickly or slowly?
Slowly
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Why do microorganism like the human body?
Warm, moist and is a source of nutrients
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If you start off with 2 micro organisms, after a certain time period, what will happen to the numbers?
There will be twice as many.
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A common cold reproduces once every 20 minutes at 38°C, if 10 organisms are left to produce foe 2 hrs, how many organisms will there be at the end of 2 hours?
2 x 60 = 120 … 120/20 = 6… 10 x 2 = 20… 20 x 2 = 40… 40 x 2 = 80......... And do this for 6 times..... 320 x 2 = 640 so after 2hrs there will be 640 organisms
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What is the main purpose of the immune system?
To fight off invading microbes
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What does an immune response always involve?
White blood cells
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What is a pathogen
Bacterium, virus etc
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What do pathogens contain?
Certain protiens which are forgiven to the body, known as antigens.
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What is a lymphocyte?
A lymphocyte is a white blood cell which is vital to the immune response as it determines the specifcity of the immune response and pathogens
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What is a phagocyte?
A white blood cell which engulf pathogens and then digests them
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How do lymphocytes kill of bacteria?
They carry antibodies which are proteins to fit to certain antigen, once they found out which antibody is best fit to the Antiguan they will quickly produce copies of this lymphocyte to fight off the infection.
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What does the body’s passive immunity system consist of?
Skin, nose hairs, strong acid in stomach, enzymes in tears and blood clotting (scabbing)
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What else do white blood cells do to fight of bacteria?
They produce anti toxins which neutralise the antigens being produces by the pathogen
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What are antibodies and antitoxins?
Specialised protiens
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Where are the protiens usually found on the pathogen?
The surface
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How do antibodies know where to go to?
Some white blood cells will mark the pathogen
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What happens once the right white blood cell has been found?
It divides in to many of the same antibody so it can fight off the infections quickly.
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What is a memory cell?
A long lived lymphocyte which stays around in the blood.
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What are memory cells good at?
The y can reproduce very quickly if the same antigens are to re appear in the body again.
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How do memory cells fight off the antigens?
They produce loads of antibodies and kill of the pathogen before it makes you ill
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What is immunity?
The killing of pathogens before it makes you ill
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What do vaccines prevent?
You from becoming ill from a infection or disease that could potentially be dangerous.
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What is immunisation?
Injecting dead or inactive micro organisms into a person.
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Why inject dead or inactive micro organisms?
Because they still carry the same antigens which means your body will produce antibodies to stock the , however you will not become ill first time round due to inactive or dead microorganism a not being able to harm you
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Therefore,what happens at the end of the vaccine course?
Memory cells will be produced
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What are epidemics?
Big out breaks of disease
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How would you prevent epidemics?
Vaccinating many people
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If people aren't vaccinated?
Diseases can spread fast and lots of people will be ill at the same time
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Vaccinations can never be...?
Safe or 100% able to work as each individual is different and people react differently to different products and many be allergic therefore not being able to get a vaccination.
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What are antimicrobials?
Things like penicillin
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What can antimicrobials do?
Inhibit or kill bacteria, fungi and viruses
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What are antimicrobials useful for?
Clearing up infections that your own immune system is having trouble fighting off.
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What type of antimicrobials kill of bacteria?
Antibiotics
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What do antibiotics not kill?
Viruses
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What can micro organism do?
Evolve and become resistant to antimicrobials
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How do micro organisms evolve?
Random mutations In their DNA, this lead to changes in their characteristics, therefor bing less affected to a particular antimicrobial.
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Why are mutations good for micro organisms?
Bacteria will live for longer in the body and will therefore reproduce quickly
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What happens to the other reproduced micro organism once the "parent" has changed ?
When they reproduce, they will ALL be resistant to the antimicrobial.
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What are the "superbugs" which are very easily mutated to evolve around antimicrobials?
MRSA
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What happens then you take antiboiotics when you don't need to?
Increases the risk of micro organisms becoming antibiotic-resistant
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What is also important to fulfil when taking antibiotics?
To complete a full course of antibiotics, if you stop when you "feel better" then there is a higher risk of antibiotic resistance bacteria occurring.
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Drugs are first tested where?
Laboratory
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What are drug trial in the lab often used on?
Human cells that are grown In the lab
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Why are they tested on human cells?
So they can measure the effect the drug had in human cells
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What are the implications of using human cells?
You don't know how the drug would perform in conditions of the whole human body system so you still can't be sure whether the drug is affective or safe.
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What is the second stage of drug trials?
Testing in mammals, usually monkeys or rats first sonthatvif it is harmful, then we can change the drug to make it unharmful
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Why test in monkeys/rats?
Many mammals have very similar systems to humans so test give early indications of what the drug might do to the human body eg. Hair loss
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What is the third stage in drug trials?
Testing on humans
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What humans is the drug first tested on?
Healthy volunteers
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If there is the "all good" with the healthy volunteers, what do they then do?
Test on people who are suffering from the illness.
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What are Placebos?
Fake treatments which don't actually involve giving the drug to the patient
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Why do we use the placebo effect?
So you can compare the placebo patients and the patients who were actually given the drug.
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In some cases where there seriously ill people what do they not do?
Use the placebo on them because it is though of as unethical to not let them get to take the change of the possible benefits of the drug
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If the drug worked...?
The results would show that the people with the drug for better
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What does open-label mean?
Both the patient and doctor know are aware of the treatments.
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What are double blind-trials?
Where the patient and doctor don't know whether they have the real drug or it's a placebo
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What does blind-trials mean?
Where the patient doesn't know what drug or placebo he's getting but the doctor does
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What is one factor of a human drug trial?
The trial can last up to 5 years
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What do artistes do?
Carry blood AWAY from the heart and to other body tissues / cells
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Why are artery walls thick and elastic?
The blood comes out at high pressure
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What do veins do?
Pump blood back TO the heart
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Why are vein walls not as thick?
They have low pressure of blood
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Are veins bigger than arteries?
Yes, they have a bigger lumen to help blood flow more easily
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What do veins have the arteries don't?
They have valves which help to keep the blood flowing in the right direction
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What are capillaries?
They carry blood really close to every cell in the body to exchange subatances with them eg. Gases exchange
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What are the characteristics of capillaries?
They have partially permeable walls so substances can diffuse, their walls are only one cell thick this increases the rate of diffusion by decreasing the distance over which it happenes
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What is the whole point of the circulatory system?
To supply the body with oxygen and nutirence
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What is the hearts main objective?
To keep oxygenated blood being pumped around the body and to get deoxygenated bloody to the lungs to be oxygenated
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Which side pumps which?
Right side = deoxygenated blood … left side = oxygenated blood
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Heart is made up of what?
Muscle cells that keep it beating continuously
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How is the blood supplied to the heart?
By two coronary arteries which branch from the base of the aorta.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Micro organisms can cause symptoms of a diease by...?

Back

Damage cells or releasing toxins

Card 3

Front

What are the two ways of testing for cystic fibrosis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Do micro organisms reproduce quickly or slowly?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do microorganism like the human body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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