B2.1 Cells Tissues and Organs

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  • Created by: Maddi
  • Created on: 26-10-14 11:22
What is the role of cytoplasm in an animal cell?
The cytoplasm is a liquid gel in which most of the chemical reactions needed for life take place.
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What is the role of mitochondria in an animal cell?
Mitochondria are structures in the cytoplasm where oxygen is used and most of the energy is released during respiration.
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What is the role of ribosomes in an animal cell?
Ribosomes are where protein synthesis takes place. All the proteins needed in the cell are made here.
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What is the role of the cell wall in a plant cell?
A cell wall made of cellulose that strengthens the cell and gives it support.
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
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What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
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What is the role of the cell membrane in an animal cell?
The cell membrane controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
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What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
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What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
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How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
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What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
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What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
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What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
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How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
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What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
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What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
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What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised
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What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
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What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
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What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
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What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
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What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
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What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
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How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
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What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
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What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
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How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
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How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
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Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
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Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
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What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and functions working together.
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What are muscular tissues?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
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What are glandular tissues?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and horones.
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What are epithelial tissues?
Epithelial tissues covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
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What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surface of the plant and protect them.
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What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
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What are xylem and phloem tissues?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants. They carry water and dissolved mineral ions from the roots up to the leaves and dissolved foods from the leaves around the plant.
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What is an organ?
Organs are made up of tissues
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What major functions do organ systems do around the body?
Transporting the blood, or digesting food.
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What exchanges happen using organ systems? (3)
1) There is an exchange of gases in the lungs. 2) Digested food moves from the small intestine to the blood. 3) dissolved substances out of blood into kidney tubules.
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What adaptations of organs make the exchange of materials more efficient and easier?
1) Increase the surface area --> bigger surface area, more quickly diffusion can take place. 2) organs have a good blood supply, helps maintain steady concentration gradient
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What are organ systems?
Organ systems are groups of organs that all work together to perform a particular function.
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What organs form the digestive system?
Pancreas, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, liver and large intestine.
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What are plant organs?
Plant organs include stems, roots and leaves.
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What do glands do in the digestive system?
Glands, such as the pancreas and salivary glands, produce digestive juices
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What does the stomach do in the digestive system?
The stomach (and small intestine) is where digestion occurs.
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What does the small intestine do in the digestive system?
The small intestine is where the absorption of soluble food occurs.
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What does the large intestine do in the digestive system?
The large intestine is where water is absorbed from the undigested food, producing faeces.
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What is the role of mitochondria in an animal cell?

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Card 4

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What is the role of the cell wall in a plant cell?

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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?

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