B2.1: Cells, tissues, organs

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • B2.1 Cells
    • Cells
      • Animal Cells
        • Nucleus-controls cell activity and contains genes
          • Plant Cells
            • Cytoplasm -where chemical reactions take place
            • Ribosomes-where protein synthesis occurs
            • Mitochondria -where aerobic respiration occurs
            • Cell Membrane-controls passages of substances in/out
            • Chloroplasts- contain chlorophyll to absorb light energy for photosynphesis
            • Cell Wall- made of cellulose to support and strengthen cell
            • Vacuole- full of cell sap to support cell
        • Cell Membrane-controls passages of substances in/out
        • Cytoplasm -where chemical reactions take place
        • Ribosomes-where protein synthesis occurs
        • Mitochondria -where aerobic respiration occurs
      • Plant Cells
        • Chloroplasts- contain chlorophyll to absorb light energy for photosynphesis
        • Cell Wall- made of cellulose to support and strengthen cell
        • Vacuole- full of cell sap to support cell
      • Bacterium cell
        • Cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall
        • genetic info not is distinct nucleus, sometimes in plasmids
        • Some contain slime capsules or flagella
      • Yeast cell
        • Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall
        • produce ethanol via anearobic respiration
    • Specialised cells
      • Sperm-fertilise eggs
        • flagella to move through female
        • DNA in head
        • acrosome contains digestive enzymes to break down outer layers of egg
        • contains mitochondria for energy
      • Cone Cell- see colour
        • Contains light receptor cells and visual pignents
        • synapse connected to optic nerve
        • contains chemicals which change in coloured light
      • Fat cell-to provide energy
        • can expand to 1000 times its size
        • few mitochondria-no need
    • Diffusion
      • the movement of particles from an area of high conc.  to an area of low conc. until equilibrium is reached
      • occurs faster when there is a higher temperature (particles have more energy) or when conc. gradient is higher
      • In living organisms
        • exchange of O2 and CO2  in lungs
        • cells are adapted by having large surface area e.g. folded membrane
        • digested food in small intestine to blood
        • good blood supply
    • Tissues and Organs
      • tissue
        • group of cells with similar structure and function that work together
        • glandular tissue-produce enzymes/ hormones
        • epithelial tissue -covers parts of body e.g.stomach
        • epidermal tissue-covers plat
        • mesophyll tissue-carry out photosynthesis
        • xylem tissue- transport water
        • phloem tissue- transport sugars
      • Organs
        • group of tissues working together to carry out a function
        • organ systems
          • digestive system
            • stomach- uses enzymes to break down food molecules
              • liver-produces bile (stored in gall bladder) to neutralise stomach acid and emulisfy fats
                • pancreas-produces enzymes
                  • small intestine-enzymes break down food molecules which are absorbed into blood
                    • large intestine-water is absorbed into blood stream
          • leaf
            • waxy cuticle- prevents leaf drying out
              • upper epidermis- no chloroplasts so light reaches palisade
                • palisade layer- chloroplasts capture sun's energy
                  • vascular bundle- vein containing phloem and  xylem vessels
                    • air spaces- allow diffusion of CO2
        • roots, stems, leaves in a plant

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cells, tissues and organs resources »