B2.1 Cells, tissues and organs

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  • Created by: Maddi
  • Created on: 19-10-14 13:50
What is the role of cytoplasm in an animal cell?
The cytoplasm is a liquid gel in which most of the chemical reactions needed for life take place.
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What is the role of mitochondria in an animal cell?
Mitochondria are structures in the cytoplasm where oxygen is used and most of the energy is released during respiration.
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What is the role of ribosomes in an animal cell?
Ribosomes are where protein synthesis takes place. All the proteins needed in the cell are made here.
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What is the role of the cell membrane in an animal cell?
The cell membrane controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
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What is the role of the cell wall in a plant cell?
A cell wall made of cellulose that strengthens the cell and gives it support.
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
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What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
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What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
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What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
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What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
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What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
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What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
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How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
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What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
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What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
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What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
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How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
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What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
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What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
24 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
25 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
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What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
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What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
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How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
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What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
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What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
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What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
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How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
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What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
36 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
37 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
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What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
40 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
41 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
42 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
43 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
44 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
45 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
46 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
47 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
48 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
49 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
51 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
52 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
53 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
54 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
55 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
56 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
57 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
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What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
60 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
61 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
62 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
64 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
65 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
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What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
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What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
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How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
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What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
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What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
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What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
73 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
74 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
75 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
77 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
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What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
79 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
80 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
81 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
82 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
83 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
84 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
85 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
87 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
88 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
89 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
91 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
92 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
93 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
94 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
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How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
96 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
97 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
98 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
99 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
100 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4.
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
102 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
103 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
104 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
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What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
106 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
107 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
108 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
109 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
110 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
111 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
112 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
113 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
114 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
115 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
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What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
117 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
118 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
119 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
120 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
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What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
122 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
123 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
124 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
125 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
126 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
127 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
128 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
129 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
130 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
131 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
132 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
133 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
134 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
135 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
136 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
137 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
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What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
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How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
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What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
142 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
143 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
144 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
145 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
146 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
147 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
148 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
149 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
150 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
151 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
152 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
153 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
154 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
155 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
156 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
157 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
158 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
159 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
160 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
162 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
163 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
164 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
165 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
166 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
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How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
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Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. o The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
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What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
170 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
171 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
172 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
173 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
174 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
175 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
176 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
177 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
178 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
179 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
180 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
181 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
182 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
183 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
184 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
185 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
186 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
187 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
188 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
189 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
190 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
191 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
192 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
193 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
194 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
195 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
196 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
197 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
198 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
199 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
200 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
201 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
202 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
203 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
204 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
205 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
206 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
207 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
208 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
209 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
210 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
211 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
212 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
213 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
214 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
215 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
216 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
217 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
218 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
219 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
220 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
221 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
222 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
223 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
224 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
225 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
226 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
227 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
228 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
229 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
230 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
231 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
232 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
233 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
234 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
235 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
236 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
237 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
238 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
239 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
240 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
241 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
242 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
243 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
244 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
245 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
246 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
247 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
248 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
249 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
250 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
251 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
252 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
253 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
254 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
255 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
256 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
257 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
258 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
259 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
260 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
261 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
262 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
263 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
264 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
265 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
266 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
267 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
268 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
269 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
270 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
271 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
272 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
273 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
274 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
275 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
276 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
277 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
278 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
279 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
280 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
281 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
282 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
283 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
284 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
285 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
286 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
287 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
288 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
289 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
290 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
291 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
292 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
293 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
294 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
295 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
296 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
297 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
298 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
299 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
300 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
301 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
302 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
303 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
304 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
305 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
306 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
307 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
308 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
309 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
310 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
311 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
312 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
313 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
314 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
315 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
316 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
317 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
318 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
319 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
320 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
321 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
322 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
323 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
324 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
325 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
326 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
327 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
328 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
329 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
330 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
331 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
332 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
333 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
334 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
335 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
336 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
337 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
338 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
339 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
340 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
341 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
342 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
343 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
344 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
345 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
346 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
347 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
348 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
349 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
350 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
351 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
352 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
353 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
354 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
355 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
356 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
357 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
358 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
359 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
360 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
361 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
362 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
363 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
364 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
365 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
366 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
367 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
368 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
369 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
370 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
371 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
372 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
373 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
374 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
375 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
376 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
377 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
378 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
379 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
380 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
381 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
382 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
383 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
384 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
385 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
386 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
387 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
388 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
389 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
390 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
391 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
392 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
393 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
394 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
395 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
396 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
397 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
398 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
399 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
400 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
401 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
402 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
403 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
404 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
405 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
406 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
407 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
408 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
409 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
410 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
411 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts
412 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
413 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
414 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
415 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
416 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
417 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
418 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
419 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
420 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
421 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
422 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
423 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
424 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
425 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
426 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
427 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
428 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
429 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
430 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
431 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
432 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
433 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
434 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
435 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
436 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
437 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
438 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
439 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
440 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
441 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
442 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
443 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
444 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
445 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
446 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the tr
447 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
448 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
449 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
450 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
451 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
452 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
453 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
454 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
455 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
456 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
457 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
458 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
459 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
460 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
461 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
462 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
463 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
464 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
465 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
466 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
467 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
468 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
469 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
470 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
471 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
472 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
473 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
474 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
475 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
476 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
477 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
478 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
479 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
480 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
481 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants.
482 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
483 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
484 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
485 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
486 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
487 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
488 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
489 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
490 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
491 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
492 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
493 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
494 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
495 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
496 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
497 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
498 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
499 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
500 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
501 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
502 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
503 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
504 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
505 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
506 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
507 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
508 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
509 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
510 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
511 of 743
What is an organ?
Organs are made up of tissues.
512 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
513 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
514 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
515 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
516 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
517 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants.
518 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
519 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
520 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
521 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
522 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
523 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
524 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
525 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
526 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
527 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
528 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
529 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
530 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
531 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
532 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
533 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
534 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
535 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
536 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
537 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
538 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
539 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
540 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
541 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
542 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
543 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
544 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
545 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
546 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
547 of 743
What is an organ?
Organs are made up of tissues.
548 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
549 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
550 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
551 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
552 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
553 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants.
554 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
555 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
556 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
557 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
558 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
559 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
560 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
561 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
562 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
563 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
564 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
565 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
566 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
567 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
568 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
569 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
570 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
571 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
572 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
573 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
574 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
575 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
576 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
577 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
578 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
579 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
580 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
581 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
582 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
583 of 743
What is an organ?
Organs are made up of tissues.
584 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
585 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
586 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
587 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
588 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
589 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants.
590 of 743
Where and in what organs have adaptations been formed to enable exchanges to take place?
- there is an exchange of gases in the lungs. - digested food moves from the small intestine into the blood. - dissoved s
591 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
592 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
593 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
594 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
595 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
596 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
597 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
598 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
599 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
600 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
601 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
602 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
603 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
604 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
605 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
606 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
607 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
608 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
609 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
610 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
611 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
612 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
613 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
614 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
615 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
616 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
617 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
618 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
619 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
620 of 743
What is an organ?
Organs are made up of tissues.
621 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
622 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
623 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
624 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
625 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
626 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants.
627 of 743
Where and in what organs have adaptations been formed to enable exchanges to take place?
- there is an exchange of gases in the lungs. - digested food moves from the small intestine into the blood. - dissoved substances are filtered out of the blood and into the kidney tubes
628 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
629 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
630 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
631 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
632 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
633 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
634 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
635 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
636 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
637 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
638 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
639 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
640 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
641 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
642 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
643 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
644 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
645 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
646 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
647 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
648 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
649 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
650 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
651 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
652 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
653 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
654 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
655 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
656 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
657 of 743
What is an organ?
Organs are made up of tissues.
658 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
659 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
660 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
661 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
662 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
663 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants.
664 of 743
Where and in what organs have adaptations been formed to enable exchanges to take place?
- there is an exchange of gases in the lungs. - digested food moves from the small intestine into the blood. - dissoved substances are filtered out of the blood and into the kidney tubes
665 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
666 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
667 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
668 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
669 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
670 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
671 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
672 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
673 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
674 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
675 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
676 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
677 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
678 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
679 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
680 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
681 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
682 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
683 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
684 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
685 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
686 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
687 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
688 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
689 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
690 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
691 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
692 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
693 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
694 of 743
What is an organ?
Organs are made up of tissues.
695 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
696 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
697 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
698 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
699 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
700 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants.
701 of 743
Where and in what organs have adaptations been formed to enable exchanges to take place?
- there is an exchange of gases in the lungs. - digested food moves from the small intestine into the blood. - dissoved substances are filtered out of the blood and into the kidney tubes
702 of 743
What are organ systems?
Organ systems are groups of organs that form particular functions.
703 of 743
What are plant organs?
Plant organs include stems, roots and leaves.
704 of 743
What is the role of a permanent vacuole in a plant?
This is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant.
705 of 743
What is a permanent vaculole?
A permanent vacuole is a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap.
706 of 743
What do we use bacteria for?
We use bacteria to make cheese and yoghurt. Others are used in sewage treatments and to make medicines.
707 of 743
What do we use yeast for?
Bread and alcoholic drinks.
708 of 743
What are bacterial cells like?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a cell membrane surounded by a cell wall. The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.
709 of 743
How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
Unlike animal, plant and algal cells the genes are not contained in the nucleus. The long strand of DNA is usually circular and found free in the cytoplasm.
710 of 743
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are found in bacteria cells. Plasmids are circular bits of DNA that carry extra genetic information.
711 of 743
What are flagella?
Some types of bacteria have at least one flagella, a long protein strand that lashes about. These bacteria use the flagella to move about.
712 of 743
What are yeast cells like?
Each yeast cell has a nucleus containing the genetic material, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
713 of 743
How do yeast cells reproduce?
Yeast cells reproduce by asexual budding. This involves a new yeast cell growing out from the original to form a new seperate yeast organism.
714 of 743
What happens when yeast cells respire anaerobically?
When yeast cells can't break down sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
715 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
1.They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat. 2. They have few mitochondria as the cell needs very little energy. 3. They can expand.
716 of 743
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells from the human eye?
1. outer segment contains special chemical that chemically changes in coloured light 2. middle segement is packed full of mitochondria 3.specialised synapse contains to optic nerve
717 of 743
What are the two main adaptations of root hair cells?
1. The root hair increases the surface area for water to move into the cell. 2. The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
718 of 743
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
1. long tail 2. middle section full of mitochondria 3. acrosome stores digestive enzymes 4. large nucleus to be passed on
719 of 743
What function do cone cells have?
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina). They make it possible for you to see in colour.
720 of 743
What function do fat cells have?
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals to survive when food is in short supply.
721 of 743
What function do root hair cells have?
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots. Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral ions). The root hair cells help them to take up water more effectively.
722 of 743
What function do sperm cells have?
--
723 of 743
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution (a solute). This results in the net movement of particles.
724 of 743
What affects the rate of diffusion?
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
725 of 743
How do you calculate the net movement of particles?
The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out.
726 of 743
What is the concentration gradient?
This difference between two areas of concentration is called the concentration gradient.
727 of 743
What affects the concentration gradient?
The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient. The steeper the concentration gradient, the faster diffusion will take place.
728 of 743
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
An increase in temperature means the particles in a gas or a solution move more quickly. Diffusion takes place more rapidly as the random movement of the particles speed up.
729 of 743
How can individual cells be adapted to make diffusion easier and more rapid?
The most common adaptation is to increase the surface area of the cell membrane. Increasing the surface means there is more room for diffusion to take place.
730 of 743
Name three important substances that move across your cell membranes by diffusion.
1. The oxygen you need for respiration passes from the air into your lungs. From there it gets into your red blood cells through the cell membranes by diffusion. 2. amino acids pass through cell membranes by diffusion 3. diffusion of water
731 of 743
Give three examples of diffusion in living organisms.
1) diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream as the cells are respiring (and using up oxygen) 2) diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells. 3) diffusion of simple sugars + amino acids
732 of 743
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
733 of 743
What is an organ?
Organs are made up of tissues.
734 of 743
What do glandular tissue do?
Glandular tissues contain secretory cells that can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
735 of 743
What do muscular tissue do?
Muscular tissues can contract to bring about movement.
736 of 743
What do epithelial tissue do?
Epithelia tissue covers the outside of your body as well as your internal organs.
737 of 743
What are epidermal tissues?
Epidermal tissues cover the surfaces and protect them.
738 of 743
What are mesophyll tissues?
Mesophyll tissues contain lots of chloroplasts and can carry out photosynthesis.
739 of 743
What are xylem and phloem?
Xylem and phloem are the transport tissues in plants.
740 of 743
Where and in what organs have adaptations been formed to enable exchanges to take place?
- there is an exchange of gases in the lungs. - digested food moves from the small intestine into the blood. - dissoved substances are filtered out of the blood and into the kidney tubes
741 of 743
What are organ systems?
Organ systems are groups of organs that form particular functions.
742 of 743
What are plant organs?
Plant organs include stems, roots and leaves.
743 of 743

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the role of mitochondria in an animal cell?

Back

Mitochondria are structures in the cytoplasm where oxygen is used and most of the energy is released during respiration.

Card 3

Front

What is the role of ribosomes in an animal cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the role of the cell membrane in an animal cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the role of the cell wall in a plant cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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