B2 Understanding Our Enviroment

In the correct order, name the groups for classification.
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
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What happens in a natural system of classification?
Based on evolutionary relationships, animals that are closely related are more likely to be in the same group
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Which system used the genus and species to name an organism?
Binomial system
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What are the difficulties with classification?
Living things are at different stages of evolution and new organisms are being discovered
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Why might fish and dolphins be similar but classified differently?
They live in the same habitat - ecologically related
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Why might a pyramid of biomass and a pyramid of numbers look different?
Large producers or small parasites on a large animal
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Name the three processes in a living organism that use energy.
Respiration, egestion and excretion
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What happens to the animal at the end of the food chain because of the energy loss in each trophic level?
They have to feed and hunt on more prey because they need more energy, using their energy
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How is carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere (three reasons)?
Plants and animals respiring/soil bacteria and fungi acting as decomposers/burning of fossil fuels
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What do decomposers convert proteins and urea into?
Ammonia
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How do nitrifying bacteria help plants?
Convert ammonia into nitrates
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Where do the nitrogen-fixing bacteria live?
Root nodules
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Which conditions will slow down decay?
Waterlogged soil and acidic conditions
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Give the definition of an ecological niche.
The habitat of an organism and the organisms role in the habitat
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What sort of competition is interspecific?
Between organisms of different species
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Suggest a reason for intraspecific competition being more significant
Organisms share similar things (including habitat) and they need the same sort of resources
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Describe the relationship in numbers between a predator and it's prey.
As the number of predators increases, the prey decreases because the predators hunt more. When the prey numbers decrease, so do the predators because the predators have nothing left to eat. The prey numbers can then increase again
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What is mutualism? Give an example
Two organisms benefiting from their relationship e.g. insects eating the parasites of a large animal
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How do animals adapt to living in cold conditions?
Good insulation, biochemical (e.g. antifreeze) and usually large with small ears to decrease surface area to volume ratio
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How might animals adapt to the heat?
Very little hair, small with large surface area, behaviour (e.g. staying in the shade)
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Explain how camels and cacti have adapted to live in dry conditions.
Camels: they are able to produce concentrated urine so need little water. Cacti: reduce water loss because leaves reduced to spines
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What is an extremophiles?
An organism that can live in hot conditions e.g. bacteria because proteins don't denature at 100oc
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Will a 'specialist' or 'generalist' species win in the fight for a certain habitat?
Specialist
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Briefly describe the modern version of the theory of natural selection
Within a specie there is variation which will be passed on to young if they survive. If variation is advantage they will win resources and thrive (survival of the fittest). The successful gene will be passed down.
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How can natural selection produce a new species?
If different groups of organisms cannot mate for a while (maybe because of different areas) they may become geographically isolated. Each group will then evolve differently and become classified as a different species.
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What examples are there of natural selection that doesn't take thousands of years?
Bacteria resisting antibodies/moths surviving if camouflaged in polluted areas
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What was Jean Baptiste de Lamarck suggest as a theory for evolution?
The Law of Acquired Characteristics - giraffes had long necks to feed which was passed on
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Where does sulfur dioxide come from and what does it cause?
Comes from burning fossil fuels causing acid rain
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Name the growth of the population
Exponential growth
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What does someone's 'carbon footprint' measure?
The total amount of greenhouse gases given off by a person/organism within a certain time
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Give an method of measuring pollution in a pond
Oxygen probe
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What can an indicator species tell scientists?
The level of pollution e.g. mayfly lava only living in clean water, so if present in a pond the water is clean
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Why is it important to conserve organisms and habitats?
Protect food supply, prevent damage to food chains, protect plants and animals for medical use, protect organisms and habitats people enjoy to visit or study
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What is important to remember when conserving a species?
The size of the population and the limited genetic variation; number of suitable habitats; the amount of competition
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Describe the argument of scientists for and against killing whales for research.
For: find out more about how they survive at great depths. Against: migrations could be studied and whale communication while whales are alive
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What does sustainable development mean?
Taking enough resources to study but leaving enough for the future and preventing damage
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Why is the growing worlds population worrying scientists?
Fossil fuels will run out with the increase demand for energy; demand for food increasing; large amounts of waste need to be disposed of to minimize pollution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens in a natural system of classification?

Back

Based on evolutionary relationships, animals that are closely related are more likely to be in the same group

Card 3

Front

Which system used the genus and species to name an organism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the difficulties with classification?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why might fish and dolphins be similar but classified differently?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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