B3 gateway

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  • Created by: devinter
  • Created on: 21-05-16 19:13
What are mitochondria and what do they do
tiny structures found in cells and they Respiration, the chemical reaction that releases energy from glucose
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where as lots of mitochondria
liver and muscle cells
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What structure in cells is too small to be seen with a light microscope
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where can Ribosomes be located
in the cytoplasm
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What are Ribosomes the site of
protein synthesis
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Describe the structure of DNA
DNA is two strands coiled together to form a double helix, each strand contains chemicals called bases, there are four different types, with cross links between the strands formed by pairs of bases.
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What are chromosomes
Chromosomes are long, coiled molecules of DNA, divided up into regions called genes
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what do genes contain
different sequences of bases
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what do they code for
They code for a particular protein
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Where are proteins made
in the cytoplasm
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Why is a copy of the gene needed
gene itself cannot leave the nucleus
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What are the complementary base pairings
A - T and G - C
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What does base sequence determine
the amino acid sequence
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How may bases is each amino sequenced by
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how the code needed to produce a protein is carried
A code needed to produce a protein is carried from the DNA to the ribosomes by a molecule called mRNA.
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how does DNA controls cell function
by controlling the production of proteins, some of which are enzymes
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How did Watson and Crick used data from other scientists to build a model of DNA
Watson and Crick used X-ray data showing that there were two chains wound in a helix and they obtained data indicating that the bases occurred in pairs.
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What are proteins made of
Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids
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What does collegen do and wear is it found
it can be found in the wall of arteries,it makes the walls stronger
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What does insulin do
used to control blood-glucose levels
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What carries oxygen around the body
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What is an amino acids primary structure
its own number and sequence of amino acids
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what determines an acids Primary structure
by the sequence of bases in the gene that codes for the protein
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Give another name for biological catalysts
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what reactions do biological catalysts help speed up
respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis in living cells
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that type of molecule fits into the active site of an enzyme
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True or false enzymes only work on a particular substrate
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what is meant by 'Specificity' and why does it happen
enzymes only work on a particular substrate because the sub-straight has to be the right shape
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what does optimum PH mean
the PH that the Enzmes work best at
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What happens if the optimum is not met
the reaction will slow down
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what do low temperatures mean for enzymes
They slow down and so the enzyme and straight are less likely to collide
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what can lead to denatured active sites on enzymes
very low/high
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what is the temperature coefficent
how temperature affects the rate of reaction
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how would you calculate Q10 (temperature coefficient)
rate at higher temp over rate at lower temp
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what may mutation cause
production of different proteins, an advantage
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how may mutations cause production of different protines
they change the base code of DNA and so change the order of the amino acids
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even though every cell in the body contains the same Geans why are different protines made
Different genes are switched on and off in different cells
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what does respiration do
releases energy from food
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where does the energy from food come from
a molecule called ATP
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during exercise when might a person start using Anerobic respiration
When the mussels do not receive enough oxegen
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what is the word equation for Anaerobic respiration
Glucose-> lactic acid (+ energy)
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what lactic acid from anaerobic exercise do
builds up in the mussels causing pain and fatigue
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which type of produces less energy per a glucose
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what causes oxygen dept
incomplete breakdown of glucose (lactic acid build up)
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why does the heart rate need to be high whilst recovering
rapid blood flow can carry away lactic acid
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why when recovering from excercise why do you breath heavely
extra oxegen gets suppiled to the lactic acid in order to break it down
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the rate of respiration can be found out by usng oxegen how
mesuring how much oxegen is used up
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how can carbon dioxide be used to find respiration rate
how much carbon dioxide is made
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what is the respiritory quotient
RQ = Carbon dioxide used divided by oxegen used
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what is the metabolic rate
all the reactions that occur in the body
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what is respiration controlled by
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What does being multicellular mean
different cells do different jobs
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what does being multicellurar allwow organisms to do
become larger and more complex
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what does the body need to have in order sucsefully multicellular
communication between cells in body,supply all cells with nutrients and control exchanges with environment
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Mitosis is used to...
create new cells for growth
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in which cell devision are the cells identical
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what must happen before cell replication in mitosis
Dna replication
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what must each cell have at the end of mitosis
two copies of each chromosone
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mammals have diploid cells what does this mean
they have two copies
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what does dna replication involve
dna 'unzipping' to make single strands then the bases pair up
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what happens to the chromosones during mitosis
line up on the equator and then divide then move to ends of the cell
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when does Meiosis take place
in a developing fetus
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what does meiosis do
cell division of gametes (sex cells)
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what are haploid cells
contain only one chromosone from each pair
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where does the zygote its genes from
one copy from each parent
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what creates genetic veriation
the differnt copies of genes
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what is the first division in meiosis
one pair of cromasones from each set goes to different poles
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what is the second division
the pair of cromosones split and the cell splits into 4 daughter cells
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what is the blood made out of
plasma,white and red blood cells
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what does the plasma carry
CO2, hormones, protines (anti bodies) and waste products
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why`are protines carried in the blood
to travel from the cells in which they were made to thier target cells
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why are red blood cells so small
so they`can pass though small blood vessles
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what shape are red blood cells and why
biconcave large surface area to exchange oxegen quicker
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what does hemoglobin do
combines with oxegen forming oxeheamoglobin
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when is the oxegen released from oxehemoglobin
when it reaches the tissues
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why is the bioconcave shape so important
larger surface are to volume ratio
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what do artiries do
take oxidesed blood away from the heart
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what do vains do
take deoxegenated blood to the heart
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what do cappiliries do
link artires to the to vains and matrials can pass though it
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what is the structure of an artery
think walled, elastic
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why does an artery need to be thick and elastic
to deal with the high pressure
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what do the vains have and why
lumen and valves to try and keep blood moving back to the heart
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what is special about cappilery walls
they are permeable so matirals can be transferred
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what do the atria do
resive blood
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what do the ventricles do
pump out blood
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what do the semi lunar tricuspid and bicuspid valves do
prevent backflow
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which main vains carry blood to the heart
pulomary vain and vena carva
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which artires carry carry blood away from the heart
pulmory and aorta
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which chamber of the heart is thicker and why
the left ventricle as it has to pump more blood around the body
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were does the blood from the right ventricle go
to the lungs
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why is a bactria cell different from a plant cell
no true nuclus, mitochorndria or chromosones
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were is Dna found in a bactira cell
in the cytoplasm as a sigular strand or chromosone
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what is the best measurment of growth
dry mass
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why is wet mass unrelible
water content varies
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what changes growth of parts of the body in an animal
they may need different parts of the body at different times.
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what do adult stem cells do
they can develop into different cell types
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why are embros better then adult stem cells
embroes have more variation in the cell types they can become
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what could stem cells help do
cure many medical conditions
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where on a plant can cells divide
areas called meristems
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what is differnt between an animal and Plant growth
plants continue to grow animals usually have a sat size
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how do Plant gain hight
their cells enlarge rather then dividing
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what is the difference between the way plants and animals differanitate
Plants keep he ability to diffirantiate Animals lose this ability young
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what is interbeading in selective breeding
where two closly related individuals mate
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what could interbreeding lead to
heath proplems withing the species
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what does interbreeding lead to
an increased risk in harmfull ressesive genes showing in offspring and reduction in varation of species
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what does it mean when it says the gene pool getting smaller
a reduced varity of alleles in the population
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what can corn plant be made resistent to
herbicides, frostdamage and desies
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what has rice had added to it
beta-carotene(vitimin A)
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what are the steps bfor genetic engieneering
charecteristics selected, identified and romoved,genes inserted and reproduced
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what is gene therepy
changing a persons genes using genetic engineering
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Card 2


where as lots of mitochondria


liver and muscle cells

Card 3


What structure in cells is too small to be seen with a light microscope


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Card 4


where can Ribosomes be located


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are Ribosomes the site of


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