B2

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What are natural classification systems?
They are classification systems which are based on the evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities between organisms.
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What are artificial classification systems?
They are classification systems which are based on appearance rather than genes (used to identify organisms).
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List the subdivisions of kingdoms (e.g plant kingdom) in order; start with kingdom first.
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order,Family, Genus, Species (King Prawn Curry Or Fat Greasy Sausages).
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How do you know how closely related species are?
The more recent the common ancestor (eg. they had the same grandfather), the more related the two species (more likely to share characteristics).
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Define the term species.
A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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Name the things which make classifying organisms difficult.
Asexual Reproduction, Hybrids and Evolution.
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What are the two parts of an organisms's name?
The genus and the species.
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What is a pyramid of biomass?
It is a pyramid which shows the mass of living material at each stage of the food chain.
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What is a trophic level?
It is a feeding level; each stage of the food chain.
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What is a pyramid of numbers?
It is a pyramid which shows the number of organisms at each stage of the food chain.
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List the ways that energy is lost at each stage of the food chain?
MRS GREN,heat (e.g to maintain a constant temperature in mammals), waste materials (excretion and egestion) and not all of the organism is eaten (bones,etc.).
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How do you calculate the efficiency of energy transfer?
(energy available to the next level/ energy that was available to previous level)*100
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What is the difference between interspecific and intraspecific competition?
Interspecific is where groups of organisms compete for resources against individuals of a different species; whereas intraspecific is competition between individuals of the same species.
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Explain why predator-prey cycles are always out of phase.
It is because it takes a while for one population to respond to changes in the other population.
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What happens in a parasitic relationship?
The parasite lives off a host; they take what they need to survive without giving the host anything back. This often harms the host as well.
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What are adaptations?
They are features that organisms have that make them better suited to the environment that they live in.
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Explain the difference between a specialist and a generalist.
A specialist is an organism that is highly adapted to living in a specific environment; whereas a generalist is adapted to survive in a range of different environments.
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List the animal adaptations to cold environments.
Layer of blubber, coat of fur, small surface area to volume ratio, small ears, counter current heat exchange system, hibernating,huddling,migrating to hotter regions ,etc.
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List the animal adaptations to hot environments.
Live in the shade/underground during the day, large and thin ears, large surface area to volume ratio,
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What was Charles Darwin's theory of evolution?
He thought that the best adapted organism would be more likely to survive and reproduce and pass on its adapted genes. Over time this would develop until the adaptation was common in the species.
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Why didn't everyone agree with Darwin's theory?
They went against the common religious beliefs, Darwin couldn't explain why useful characteristics were inherited and how they were inherited and there wasn't much evidence as well.
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Why was Lamarck's theory wrong?
Because acquired characteristics doesn't have a genetic basis; therefore it cannot be passed on to the offspring.
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What puts CO2 back into the air?
Burning/ combustion of fossil fuels, decay and plant and animal respiration.
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What takes CO2 from the air?
Photosynthesis.
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Why does decomposition happen slower in waterlogged and acidic soils?
Because the bacteria and fungi which decompose organic material usually need oxygen to respire and to produce energy; waterlogged soils don't have much oxygen. Acidic soils slows down the reproduction of these decomposers or just kills them.
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What do decomposers do?
They decompose proteins and urea and turn them into ammonia.
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What does nitrifying bacteria do?
It turns ammonia (in decaying matter) into nitrates.
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What does nitrogen-fixing bacteria do?
It turns atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds that plants can use.
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What does denitrifying bacteria do?
It turns nitrates back into nitrogen gas (which has no benefit to living organisms).
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How is the human population increasing?
It is increasing exponentially.
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What does global warming cause and how does it happen?
Fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) release lots of carbon dioxide when burned; carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that traps heat in the atmosphere. Overall this causes a rise in temperatures.
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What could acid rain damage/ cause?
Many aquatic organisms are sensitive to changes in pH and so many are killed due to acid rain and it damages limestone buildings and stone statues.
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Why is ozone depletion bad?
It leads to higher exposure of UV rays which increase the risk of skin cancer and also kill plankton (which is at the start of many aquatic food chains so could have a massive impact).
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What are indicator species? Give examples of them.
Indicator species are species which are used to tell if an area is polluted or not. Some examples are lichens, mayfly larvae, sludgeworms, etc.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using non-living methods to check the pollution level?
Pros: It's reliable and numerical which makes it easier to compare between different sites and the exact pollutants can be identified. Cons: More expensive equipment is needed as well as trained workers.
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Define endangered species.
Endangered species have very low numbers left in the wild and they are in danger of becoming extinct.
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What are the 3 things that if they fall below the critical level the species faces the risk of becoming extinct?
The number of habitats, the number of individuals and genetic variation.
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What are the benefits of conservation?
It protects the human food supply, ensures minimal damage to food chains, provides future medicine (plants) and also has some good cultural aspects (national animals,etc.).
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What is sustainable development?
Sustainable development means providing for the needs of today's society without harming the environment.
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Why are whales endangered?
Because they are hunted for their meat and oil; also cosmetics can be made from a waxy substance in their intestines.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are artificial classification systems?

Back

They are classification systems which are based on appearance rather than genes (used to identify organisms).

Card 3

Front

List the subdivisions of kingdoms (e.g plant kingdom) in order; start with kingdom first.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do you know how closely related species are?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define the term species.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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