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the heart
double pump, pumps blood around the body (carries nutrients, oxygen to cells and removes waste)
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3 types of blood vessels
arteries(away), veins(back) and capillaries(between them to cells)
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heart disease is...
a structural/functional abnormality
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causes of heart disease...
lifestyle factors (smoking, not exercising, being overweight) and genetic factors
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blood pressure can...
monitor risk of heart disease
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the 2 numbers in blood presure mean...
high number=contracting and low number=relaxing
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infection is caused by...
microorganisms that harm cells (bacteria, fungi and viruses)
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the ideal conditions for microorganisms to multiply are...
warmth, nutrients and moisture
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the immune system...
white blood cells make antibodies and engulf/digest microoganisms
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what do antibodies do?
they lock onto antigens (the markers on the sides of microorganisms) which allows WBC to find them
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what do memory cells do?
remember the antibodies for that specific disease allowing a quicker response to a 2nd infection
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vaccinations are...
weakened forms of dieases which mean antibodies are made so that if you are infected you can fight the disease easily
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what is herd immunity?
when 95% of the population is vaccinated meaning the un-vaccinated are protected as it is unlikely that a epidemic will happen
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how do diseases become resistant?
random mutations cause new strains which are less affected by antibiotics so reproduce and pass on resistance
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how to stop diseases becoming resistant?
complete antibiotic course and only use when completely necessary
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what are the 4 types of clinical trials?
blind trials, double-blind trials, open-label trials and long-term trials
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what are placebos?
some people take a drug which isn't acctually anything so that the affect of the real drug can be compared to it
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what are the inputs and outputs that effect water levels?
inputs= food/drink and respiration. outputs= sweating, breathing and urine
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how the body balances water levels?
homeostasis (brain receptors send a signal to the pituitary gland which releases ADH hormone)
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what does ADH do?
it affects how much water is reabsorbed into the blood - of it is detected by the kidneys, the kidneys remove water from blood.
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how do the kidneys balance water levels?
if there is too much water, lots of dilute urine is produced. if there is too little water, concentrated urine is produced.
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how is salt removed from the blood?
lots of dilute urine is produced
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


3 types of blood vessels


arteries(away), veins(back) and capillaries(between them to cells)

Card 3


heart disease is...


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


causes of heart disease...


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


blood pressure can...


Preview of the front of card 5
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