B1f: Staying in balance

Many complex chemical processes take place in our cells and organs to ensure an optimum state. This item looks at how a constant internal environment is achieved. This item provides the opportunity to collect and analyse primary data and present information using scientific and mathematical conventions in the ‘changing skin temperatures’ experiment. The use of a data logger can provide an opportunity to use an ICT tool. Discussing the use of thermal blankets as a contemporary application of science, along with work on heat stroke, provides the opportunity to look at the benefits of technological developments. 

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What three things does the body work to contain steady levels of?
Temperature, water and carbon dioxide.
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What is the usual temperate of the human body?
37°C.
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Describe where to measure body temperature. (4 ways)
Ear, mouth, **** and finger.
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Describe how to measure body temperature. (4 ways)
Thermal imaging, clinical thermometer, digital recording probes and sensitive strips.
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How is heat gained/retained?
Respiration, little sweating, vasoconstriction, clothing, shivering, exercise and hairs standing on end.
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How is heat lost?
Sweating, hairs lying flat and vasodilation.
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What does the pancreas do?
The pancreas produces the hormone insulin.
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How is type 1 diabetes caused?
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin.
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How does insulin travel around the body?
Released by pancreas, travels to the liver in the bloodstream.
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What is homeostasis?
The balance of body inputs and outputs to maintain a constant internal environment.
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Why is carbon dioxide controlled?
Respiration produces carbon dioxide, which your body needs to get rid of.
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Why is water controlled?
You need to keep water input and output the same.
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Why is body temperature controlled?
To get rid of excess body heat when hot, but retain heat when cold.
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How do you gain water?
eating, drinking and breathing.
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How do you lose water?
Wee, sweat, and breathing.
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Explain how negative feedback mechanisms are used to maintain a constant internal environment.
Changes in the environment trigger a response that counteracts the changes. This means the internal environment tends to stay around 37°C, the level the cells work best. However, if it changes too much, it may not be possible to counteract it.
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How does sweating work?
When sweat evaporates it uses heat from your skin. This transfers heat from your skin to the environment, which cools you down.
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What works best at 37°C?
Enzymes optimum temperature is 37°C.
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What can being too hot cause?
Dehydration - Heat Stroke - death.
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How can dehydration cause death?
Sweating stops because you are too dehydrated, and body temperature rises. Your enzymes don't work properly and reactions get disrupted, which leads to collapsing and death.
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What can being too cold cause?
Hypothermia - death.
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How does vasodilation increase heat transfer?
Blood vessels widen, allowing more blood to flow near the surface, so more heat can be radiated.
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Hows does vasoconstriction reduce heat transfer?
Blood vessels constrict so less heat can be transferred as less blood flows near the surface.
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What acts a personal thermostat in your brain?
Thermoregulatory centre.
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Describe the thermoregulatory system.
It contains receptors that are sensitive to blood temperature in the brain. It receives impulses from the skin about skin temperature. The brain responds to this and uses the nervous and hormonal system to initiate temperature control mechanisms.
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What does insulin do?
Control blood sugar levels.
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How can type 1 diabetes be controlled?
Limiting the food intake of single carbohydrates and also insulin therapy. (injecting insulin into the bloodstream)
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How can type 2 diabetes be controlled?
Limiting the food intake of single carbohydrates.
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Explain why responses controlled by hormones are usually slower than responses controlled by the nervous system.
Hormones travel in the blood stream, so it takes a while to get to where they are needed. Electrical impulses are song along nerves, which is much quicker.
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How does insulin help to regulate blood sugar levels?
When it is in the liver it turns glucose into glycogen.
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Explain how the dosage of insulin needed to be taken by a person with Type 1 diabetes depends upon diet and activity.
Diet- depends how much simple carbohydrates they are eating as it causes glucose levels to rapidly increase. Activity as exercise removes glucose from the blood.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the usual temperate of the human body?

Back

37°C.

Card 3

Front

Describe where to measure body temperature. (4 ways)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe how to measure body temperature. (4 ways)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is heat gained/retained?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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