B1c: Staying Healthy

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What are infectious diseases caused by?
Pathogens
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What pathogen causes athletes foot?
Fungi
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The pathogen protozoa causes...
Malaria
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What pathogen causes the flu?
Virus
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The pathogen bacteria causes...
Cholera
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Four ways the human body defends against pathogens.
Skin provides a barrier, Blood clotting prevents entry of pathogens, pathogens are trapped by mucus in airways and Hydrochloric acid in the stomach kills pathogens.
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What are pathogens?
Disease-causing microorganisms.
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What is the difference bettween infectious and non-infectious dieseases?
Infectious are caused by pathogens, and non infectious aren't.
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Four examples and reasons why they are non infectious.
Scury = Vitamin C deficiency, anaemia = iron deficiency, diabetes and cancer = disorders of the body.
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What does immunisation give protection against?
Certain pathogens.
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Two ways in which pathogens are destroyed by the immune system.
Engulfed by white blood cells and destroyed by antibodies.
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Why are new medical treatments/drugs tested before use?
To make sure they are safe and work.
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Explain about parasites, and give an example.
The protozoan is a parasite, which is an organism that lives off another organism (a host.) It often causes harm. E.g: Malara is caused by a protozoan.
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What is a vector?
Vectors are organisms that carry diseases without cathcing it theirselves.
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How do vectors spread disease? (by using an example.)
Mosquitoes pick up the malarial parasite when they feed on an infected animal. Everytime the mosquito feeds on another animal it infects it by infecting the parasites into the animals blood vessels.
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What two things reduce the chance of getting cancer?
A healthy lifestyle and diet.
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What does not smoking reduce the chance of getting?
Lung cancer.
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What may reduce the risk of getting colon cancer?
Eating less processed mear and more fibre.
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What are the symptoms of an infectious disease caused by?
Cell damage or toxins produced by pathogens.
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What leads to the death of pathogens?
Antibodies locking onto antigens.
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What is passive immunity?
Passive immunity is where you use antibodies made by another organism. This is only temporary.
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What is active immunity?
Active immunity is where the immune system makes its own antibodies after being stimulated by a pathogen. It includes becoming naturally immune and artificisally immune. Active immunity is usually permanent.
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Give an an example of passive immunity.
Antibodies are passed from mother to baby through breast milk.
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What are anitbiotics?
Antibiotics are drugs that kill bacteria without killing your own body cells.
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What are antivirals?
Antivirals can be used to treat viral infections. Antivirals are drugs that stop viruses from reproducing.
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What are the three stages of drug development?
Computer models, Human tissue and Animals.
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Explain about testing on computer models.
They are often used first- they stimulate a human's response to a drug, so you don't need to test it on live animals first. They can identify promising drugs to be tested in the next stage but its not as accurate.
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Explain about testing on human tissues. Example of a problem.
You can't use human tissue to test drugs that affect whole/multiple body systems. E.g. testing a drug for blood pressure must be done on a whole animal i.e. one that has an intact circulatory system.
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Explain about testing on animals.
The law in Britain statrd must be tested on two different live mammals. Some people think its cruel to test on animals,but others believe it is safest way to make sure a drug isn't dangerous before it's given to humans.
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What is a benign tumor?
This is where the tumour grows until there's no more room . The cells stay where they are. This type isn't usually dangerous.
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What is a malignant tumor?
This is where the tumour grows and can spread to other sites in body. This type is dangerous and can be fatal.
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Do pathogens have the same molecules on the surface of their cells?
No every pathogen has unique molecules. No two pathogens have the same. These molecules are called antigens.
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What happens when white blood cells come across foreign antigens?
They start to produce proteins called antibodies, which lock on and kill the new invading cells. The antibodies are specfic to that pathogen, they wont lock onto other pathogens.
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Explain the process of immunisation.
You inject dead/inactive pathogens into the body. These carry antigens,so even though they are harmless they trigger an immune response. Your WBC produce antibodies to attack them. Some of these WBC will remain in the blood as memory cells.
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Benefits on immunisation(2)
Stops you getting ill, diseases wont spread easily.
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Risks of immunisation(3)
Short term side effects (swellig and redness), Can't have vaccines if you're already ill (weak immune system), can cause other disorders (MMR links to autism)
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What happens if you misuse antibiotics?a good example?
increases the rate of resistant strains. MRSA.
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Explain about blind and double blind clinical trials.
Blind: the patient doesn't know whether they are getting the drug or the placebo, often the scientist doesnt know either until after the experiment.
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Card 2

Front

What pathogen causes athletes foot?

Back

Fungi

Card 3

Front

The pathogen protozoa causes...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What pathogen causes the flu?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The pathogen bacteria causes...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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