B1 - Unit 1

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What are pathogens?
They cause infectious diseases, e.g. bacteria
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What are vaccines?
Contain dead or inactive pathogens. Encourage white blood cells to produce antibodies.
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Where are the receptors?
Eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.
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What do antibiotics do?
Kill infective bacteria, e.g. Penicillin.
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What do white blood cells do?
1. Ingest pathogens. 2. Produce antibodies. 3. Produce antitoxins.
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What do sensory neurons do?
Carry impulses from the receptors to the CNS.
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What is an epidemic?
Disease that spreads within a country.
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What is a pandemic?
Disease that spreads across countries.
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What do motor neurons do?
Carry impulses from the CNS to the effector organs.
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The main steps in a reflex?
1. Receptor detects stimulus. 2. Sensory neuron transmits impulse to CNS. 3. Relay neuron passes impulse on. 4. Impulse passed to effector. 5. Action is taken.
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What is MRSA?
'Super bug' that has evolved through natural selection.
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What is sexual reproduction?
Involves the fusion of sex cells, the offspring's DNA is mixed.
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Disadvantages of cloning and genetic engineering?
GM crops are infertile, effects of GM crops on health and ethical reasons.
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Where is oestrogen produced?
The ovaries.
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What is asexual reproduction?
Does not involve sex cells, all DNA comes from one parent and all offspring are identical to the parent.
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What are statins?
Drugs that lower bad cholesterol.
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What controls the blood sugar levels?
The pancreas.
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What internal body conditions are controlled?
Water content, ion content, temperature and blood sugar levels.
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Advantages of cloning and genetic engineering?
You can make copies of the best animals, many medicines have been found this way (insulin), GM crops are resistant to herbicides and insects and GM crops have a bigger yield.
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Card 2

Front

What are vaccines?

Back

Contain dead or inactive pathogens. Encourage white blood cells to produce antibodies.

Card 3

Front

Where are the receptors?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do antibiotics do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do white blood cells do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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