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Describe the factors that increase and decrease blood pressure
Increase: Overweight, stress, high alcohol intake, smoking | Decrease: Regular exercise, balanced diet
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Explain the possible consequences of having high pressure
Causes blood vessels to burst which can cause damage to brain (stroke), heart attack, damage the kidneys
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Explain the possible consequences of having low blood pressure
Dizziness, fainting, poor circulation to areas such as fingers and toes
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Explain how narrowed coronary arteries, together with a thrombosis, increase the risk of a heart attack
The narrowing of the arteries caused by plaques in the coronary arteries reduces blood flow to heart muscles. The plaque makes thrombosis more likely to happen, which also blocks the artery.
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What does a diet have to contain to increase the risk of heart disease?
Heart disease is caused by restricted blood flow to the heart muscles, a diet must have high level of saturated fat, which leads up to the build up of cholesterol, and high levels of salt, which increases blood pressure
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Where are carbohydrates and fats stored in the body and what are they converted to?
Carbohydrates = Liver, converted to glycogen | Fats = under the skin, converted to adipose tissue
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Why is protein deficiency (kwashiorkor) common in developing countries?
Due to overpopulation and lack of money to improve agriculture
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Describe the difference between first and second class protiens
First class proteins contain all the essential amino acids that cannot be made by the human body whilst second class proteins do not contain these aminos
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Explain the difference between active and passive immunity
Active immunity is when your body makes its own antibodies and passive is when you receive antibodies as your body cannot make it,
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Describe changes in lifestyle that may reduce the risk of some cancers
Avoid eating too much fat, eat plenty of fruit & veg, take regular exercise, avoid drinking too much alcohol
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Describe the benefits and risks of getting immunised.
Benefits: You become immunised to a disease, decreases the risk of the disease spreading | Risks: Potential side effects can happen, but lesser than lethal effects of getting the pathogen
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Describe the difference between benign and malignant tumours
Benign: if a tumour does not spread | Malignant: if a tumour spreads to other parts of the body
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Describe the path taken by a spinal reflex
receptor > sensory neurone > relay neurone > motor neurone > effector
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Explain the difference between monocular and binocular vision
Monocular: When eyes are on each side - have a much wider field of view but cannot judge distances | Binocular: Eyes focus on the same thing, can judge distance, do not have a wide field of view
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Explain how the eye accommodates for distant and close objects
Distant: Ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments become taut, flatter and thinner shape | Close: ciliary muscle contract, ligaments slacken, lens is a rounded and fat shape
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Explain how a nerve impulse is transmitted across a synapse
The arrival of an impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitters which diffuses across the synapse, the substance binds with recptor molecules in the membrane of the next nuerone
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Explain why damage to ciliated cells can lead to a 'smoker's cough'
Dust and particulates in cigarette smoke collect and irritate the epithelial lining which causes the build up of mucus which doesn't get moved by cilia as they got damaged by the smoke
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Explain the action of depressant drugs on synapses
Depressants bind to the receptor molecules on the next neurone and block transmission of the nerve impulse, which reduces activity at synapses
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Explain the action of stimulant drugs on synapses
Causes more transmitter substance to diffuse across the synapse
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Describe the dangerous effects of high and low temperatures on the body
High: Causes heat stroke and dehydration | Cold: hyperthermia
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Explain how negative feedback mechanisms are used in homeostasis
Level changes away from steady, the sense organs detect the change and send info to the brain's control centre, which sends info back to body structures which sets processes in motion to redress the balance and bring the level back to steady
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Explain how type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be controlled
Type 1: Insulin dosages which depend on physical acitivity and sugar intake | Type 2: Diet
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Explain how insulin helps regulate glucose levels
When there's too much glucose, the pancreas secretes insulin which travels in the blood to the liver, the liver takes up extra glucose and converts it to glycogen, this is a way of storing energy
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What is meant by shoots being positively phototropic but negatively geotropic?
The shoots grow towards light and not responding to gravity.
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What is meant by roots being positively geotropic but negatively phototropic?
The roots grown downwards to due gravity and do not respond to light
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Describe the commercial use of plant hormones.
Weedkillers, rooting powder - helps cuttings make new roots, fruit ripening - sprayed onto fruit trees to prevent the ripe fruit dropping, control of dormancy - can break dormancy of seeds and make them germinate
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Explain how different levels of auxin cause shoot curvature towards light.
Auxins move through the plant in solution and builds up on the side of the shoot tip which is furthest from the light, this causes the shoot to bend over towards the light.
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Explain the causes of genetic variation
Mutations, gamete formation, fertilisation
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What is meant by homozygous
Two indentical alleles
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What is meant by heterozygoys
Two different alleles
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What is meant by genotype
The genetic make up
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Phentotype
The characteristics expressed
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain the possible consequences of having high pressure

Back

Causes blood vessels to burst which can cause damage to brain (stroke), heart attack, damage the kidneys

Card 3

Front

Explain the possible consequences of having low blood pressure

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain how narrowed coronary arteries, together with a thrombosis, increase the risk of a heart attack

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does a diet have to contain to increase the risk of heart disease?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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