B1

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How can you measure physical health?
Stamin, Speed, Felixibility, Strength, Agililty, Caridovascular efficiency (normal blood pressure & efficient heart)
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What are the main causes of heart diseases?
Having high blood pressure, eating too much saturated fat, smoking and eating too much salt
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What are the factors that increase blood pressure?
Smoking, eating too much salt, being overweight, stress, drinking too much alcohol, eating alot of saturated fat
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What are the riskes of having high blood pressure?
Heart attack, having a stoke, suffering from kidney damage
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How does Carbon monoxide increase blood pressure?
Carbon monoxide in the tabacco combines with the haemoglobin in red blood cells and prevents carrying as much O2, which the heart has to pump faster to compensate, which puts a strain on the heart
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How does nicotine increasse blood pressure?
Nicotine is consisted in tobbaco, and increases the heart rate. The heart has to contract more, which increases the blood pressure
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How does saturated fat increase blood pressure?
The liver makes cholesterol from saturated fat, which is carried in the blood and deposited in artery walls, forming fatty plaques. These deposits narrow the arteries and restrict blood flow. The blood pressure increases to force blood through
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Why does a balanced diet vary on different people?
Age, religion, medical reason, gender, personal choice and how active you are
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Formula of EAR
0.6 x body mass in kg
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Formila of BMI
kg / m(2)
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What are the health riskes for being obese?
heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, breast cancer
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How do you prevent cancer?
Sunbathe a little, avoid eating too much fat, avoid eating too much red meat, eat plenty of fruit and veg, taking regular exercises, avoid drinking too much alcohol
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Describe the difference between a benign tumour and malignant tumour
Benign does not spread to other parts of the body and is easier to deal with, whilst malignant does spread to other parts of the body, which is harder to deal with
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What causes infectious disease?
parasitic microorganisms, which are called pathogens, they damage cells and release chemicals called toxins
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What are the types of pathogens?
Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses and Protozoa
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How is malaria controlled?
sleeping under a mosquito net and using insect repellent, drainging areas of stagnant water and using insecticides that kill the mosquitos
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What is antibiotics?
chemicals produced by some fungi and bacteria to kill/prevent other bacteria and fungi, but cannot deal viruses, because virsuses do not grow and have no metabolic reaction to be prevented, but is dealt by antiviral drugs
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Why does antibiotics have to be used carefully?
The resistant strains of bacteria develop e.g. MRSA. It lives on the skin and does no harm, however if it gets into a wound it causes bad infections, but it is killed but antiseptics
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How does your immune system prevent pathogens?
Skin, tears, stomach acid, music in the airways and blood clotting when you cut yourself
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What are the diffferent types of white blood cells
Phagocytes engulf the pathogens and Lymphocytes produce antibodies or antitoxins
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How can each type of antibodies destroy particular types of bacterium and viruses?
Each pathogens have antigens (protein) with specific shape on its surface. Each type of antibody has a particular shape and locks onto a antigen, once it is coated, white blood cells ingest and kill the pathogens
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How does immunisation work?
small amount of dead/inactivated pathogen is put into the body and white blood cells respond to them by making antibodies, some white blood cells become memory cells
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What is active immunity?
Making your own antibodies
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What is passive immunity?
Not being able to produce own antibodies, so you are injected with antibodies, but it does not last long
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What is binocular vision?
Both eyes facing forward. Both eyes focus on the samething enabling them to focus well and judge distance accurately
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What is monocular vision?
Eyes on each side of the head, giving a much wider field of view
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What is accommodation vision?
When the lens has to change shape to focus on near or distant objects
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Why do we need to respond to change?
Humans need gto respond to changes in the environment, this is called stimuli. It allows us to avoid danger and help food, and learn from experiences and coordinate behaviours
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What are the two main parts of the nervous system?
The centa nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. And the peripheral nervous system which includes the nerves taking information from sense organs into CNS to effectors
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What is a receptor?
Special cell adapted to detect stimuli e.g. skin, tongue, nose, eyes and ears
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Pathway for reflex action
Stimulus - Receptor - Sensory neurone - Relay neurone - Motor neurone - Effector - Response
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How are neurones adapted to their function?
Long, insulating sheath to prevent impulses leaking away and branched endings to communicate with many other neurones
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Why does some drugs have to be prescribed by doctors?
Side effect, interferance with another medicine, harmful to particular patient with another condition and harmful if taken too much
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What does withdrawal symptoms include?
Nausea, diarrhoea, hallucinations, vomiting, shaking and craving for drugs
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How does depressants and stimulants work?
Depressants reduce acitivity of synapses, which bind to the receptor molecules on the next neurone and block transmission of nerve impulse. Stimulant cause transmitter to cross the synapse (small gap across neurones)
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What is blind trial?
Groups do not know who is receiving the new drug
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What is double blind trial?
Neither the group nor the doctors know who is reciving the drug
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Why does alcohol cause liver damage?
Cirrhosis of the liver. Enzymes in liver cells break down the toxic alcohol, which produces other toxic products that damage the liver
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What is homeostasis?
Maintaining constant internal environment, inputs and outputs balanced in the body
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How does the body gain and lose heat to keep the core temperature constant?
If the internal organs start to get too hot the blood flowing through carries the excess heat away, which is monitored by the brain, which then brings mechanisms to control temperature
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What are hormones?
Chemicals that are secreted from glands into bloodstream, travel in the blood stream to target orangs, regulate functions of many organs and cells and coordinate processes in the body
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Describe what happens when there is too much in glucose level
The pancreas secretes insulin, which travels in the blood to the liver and makes liver take up extra glucose and changes to glycogen which stores engergy
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The cause and method of control for type 1 diabetes
Caused by own immune system destroyed the cells in the pancrease that makes insulin. Controlled with insulin injections at mealtimes,regulare exercises and balanced diet
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The cause and method of control for type 2 diabetes
Occurs in later life when the cells do not respond to insulin and the pancrease makes less insulin. Controlled by eating a balanced diet with more fibre and less sugar, or insulin injections
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What is positively phototropic?
Plant hormones are called auxins, it moves through plants and when light strikes one side of the shoot tip more auxin to built up the other side, causing the shoot to bend over, which increases photosynthesise and make food
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How does auxin make the shoot bend?
It is unevenly distributed when the shoot is exposed to light , so the auxin moves down the stem and causes cells on the side furtherest to the light to elongate more than those nearest the light
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How are human characterisitcs determined?
Environment e.g. scars and langauge and Genes e.g. eye colour, earlobe shape and nose shape. And both genes and environement e.g. height
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What are genes?
Regions of chromosomes (23 pairs)
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What is the nature-nuture debate?
Debate wheather genes or environment are more important in determining certain characterisitics e.g. sports, intelligence and health.
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What causes genetic variation?
Mutations, formation of gametes and fertilisation can all produce variations
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What is a alleles?
Mutation change of a gene to a different version. It codes for the same characteristics but produce slightly different version of characteristics.
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What are Gametes?
Special sex cells, conatainging 23 chromosomes (egg and sperm). It may produce genetic variation because chromosomes each pair may swap pieces, giving a different combinations of alleles. Or the 2 copies (chromotides) seperate during meiotic division
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Why is fertilisation random?
Each egg is genetically different from the other eggs, and any sperm could join with an egg, resulting to genetically unique individuals
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What is dominant and recessive characteristics?
The characteristics is expressed (seen) whilst recessive is not expressed.
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What makes us male and female?
XX chromosome is female. XY is a male.
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What is genotype and phenotype?
Phenotype is physical expression of genes and genotype is inherited by parents
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Card 2

Front

What are the main causes of heart diseases?

Back

Having high blood pressure, eating too much saturated fat, smoking and eating too much salt

Card 3

Front

What are the factors that increase blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the riskes of having high blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does Carbon monoxide increase blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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