B1.7

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Genetic Variation
Organisms inherit genes from their parents
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Environmental Variation
A difference which has been caused by the environment and organism lives in
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Chromosomes
Long lengths of the DNA molecule
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
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Genes
Genes carry our characteristics
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Gametes
The female's egg and the male's sperm
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Fertilisation
The egg and the sperm fuse together to form a cell with the full number of chromosomes
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Zygote
Another name for a fertilised cell
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Asexual Reproduction
A cell can make a new cell by dividing in two and it will have the exact same genetic information, there is only one parent and they are clones
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Asexual Reproduction Step 1
X-shaped chromosomes have two identical halves
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Asexual Reproduction Step 2
Each chromosome splits down the middle to form two identical sets of half chromosomes, a membrane forms around each set
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Asexual Reproduction Step 3
The DNA then replicates itself to form two identical cells with complete sets of X-shaped chromosomes
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Sexual Reproduction
Where genetic information from two organisms are combined to produce offspring which are genetically different to either parent
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Cloning
Making an exact copy of an organism
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Cuttings
Gardeners take cuttings from good parent plants and then plant them to produce genetically identical copies of the parent plant
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Tissue Culture
Plant cells are put in a growth medium with hormones and they grow into new plants
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Embryo Transplants
Where an embryo is created and then split many times in the early stages to form a clone
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Embryo Transplants Step 1
Sperm cells are taken from a prize bull and egg cells are taken from a prize cow
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Embryo Transplants Step 2
The embryo that develops is then split many times before any cells become specialised
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Embryo Transplant Step 3
These cloned embryos can then be implanted into lots of other cows
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Adult Cell Cloning
Can be used to make animal clones
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Adult Cell Cloning Step 1
An unfertilised egg cell is is taken and the nucleus is removed
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Adult Cell Cloning Step 2
A complete set of chromosomes from an adult cell is inserted into the empty egg cell
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Adult Cell Cloning Step 3
The egg cell is then stimulated by an electric shock which makes it divide
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Adult Cell Cloning Step 4
When the embryo has developed it is implanted back into the uterus where it grows into a genetically identical copy of the adult
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Genetic Engineering
Copying a useful gene from one organism's chromosome into the cells of another
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Genetic Engineering Step 1
A useful gene is cut from one organism's chromosome using enzymes
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Genetic Engineering Step 2
Enzymes are then used to cut another organism's chromosome and then to insert the useful gene
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Genetically Modified Crops(GM)
Crops which have had their genes modified
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A difference which has been caused by the environment and organism lives in

Back

Environmental Variation

Card 3

Front

Long lengths of the DNA molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Genes carry our characteristics

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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