B1 Staying healthy

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What is malaria caused by?
A protozoan called Plasmodium (feeds on red blood cells)
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What is Plasmodium carried by and how is it transmitted to humans?
Carried by mosquitoes (vectors) and are transmitted by mosquito bites
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Parasite is...
An organism that feeds in another, causing it harm.
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The spreading of malaria is stopped by...
1) Draining stagnant water 2) Putting oil on the water surface 3) Spraying insecticide
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The risk of some cancers can be reduced by changes in lifestyle and diet like...
1) Not smoking (lung cancer) 2) Using sunscreen (skin cancer)
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Benign tumour cells...
Divide slowly and are harmless (e.g. warts)
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Malignant tumour cells...
May spread and have uncontrollable growth (e.g. cancer)
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Pathogens are...
Disease causing organisms
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Pathogens alert of an infectious disease by...
1) Damaging body's cells 2) Producing poisonous waste products (toxins)
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What do antibodies do to fight illness?
They lock onto antigens (on the surface of pathogens) which kills the pathogen
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What is active immunity?
When white blood cells remain after producing antibodies to fight against an infection. If the same pathogen infects you again the WBC will reproduce and destroy.
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What is passive immunity?
Vaccinations using antibodies from someone else
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The vaccination/immunisation process...
1) A weakened version of the pathogen is injected 2) Antigens trigger a response by white blood cells, producing the correct antibodies 3) Memory cells remain in the body (long-lasting immunity)
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Immunisation advantage vs disadvantage
Potential lethal effect of the pathogen is avoided and risk of spreading the disease is decreased vs small risk to the individual
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What does an antibiotic (against bacteria and fungi) do?
Destroys pathogen
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What does an antiviral drug (against viruses) do?
Slows down the pathogen's development
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What are new treatments tested on before human trial?
1) Animals 2) Human tissue 3) Computer models
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What is a Placebo and what is it used for?
A harmless pill. Used as a comparison in drug testing so the effect of a new drug can be assessed.
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What happens in a blind trial?
Patient doesn't know what they are receiving (new drug or a placebo)
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What do blind trials/double blind trials avoid?
'Feel-good factor' and biased opinion
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What has excessive use of antibiotics resulted in?
Resistant forms of bacteria being more common than non-resistant forms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Carried by mosquitoes (vectors) and are transmitted by mosquito bites

Back

What is Plasmodium carried by and how is it transmitted to humans?

Card 3

Front

An organism that feeds in another, causing it harm.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1) Draining stagnant water 2) Putting oil on the water surface 3) Spraying insecticide

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1) Not smoking (lung cancer) 2) Using sunscreen (skin cancer)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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