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  • Created by: abi-hunt
  • Created on: 15-05-17 20:04
Why are carbohydrates important in your body?
They release energy
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Why are fats important in your body?
For warmth and to release energy
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Why are proteins important in your body?
For growth, cell repair and cell replacement
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Why is fibre important in your body?
To keep everything running smoothly through your digestive system
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What is your metabolic rate?
The rate at which the chemical reactions in your body occur
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Why is exercise important?
Exercise increases the amount of energy, decreasing the amount of energy stored as fat
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What is a pathogen
A microorganism that causes disease
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How does bacteria make you ill?
It damages your cells and produces toxins
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How do viruses make you ill?
They invade your cells and alter the DNA, then produce copies of the new "bad" DNA
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What stops microorganisms getting inside of your body?
Your skin, hair and mucus
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How do white blood cells defend your body?
They engulf foreign cells, produce antibodies and produce antitoxins
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Describe a vaccination
Injecting a dead/ inactive version of the pathogen into your body to gain immunity/resistance
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How do vaccinations work?
Although the pathogen in a vaccine is harmless, your white blood cells will produce antibodies in order to attack the disease - your antibodies can remember the disease so if it attacks again your antibodies will kill it before you feel the symptoms
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What does the MMR vaccine protect against?
Measles, mumps and rubella
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Pros of vaccines
They have helped control a lot of infectious diseases - can prevent epidemics/pandemics
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Cons of vaccines
They do not always give you immunity - you can have a bad reaction (this is very rare)
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What is a painkiller?
A painkiller ONLY relieves the symptoms - it does not kill the bacteria - eg paracetemol
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What is an antibiotic?
An antibiotic CAN kill the bacteria - eg penecillin
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Why do antibiotics NOT work on viruses
Because viruses attack the cells - antibiotics cannot kill the viruses without harming your own body cells
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How can microorrganisms be grown?
In a culture medium, usually agar jelly containing carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins and minerals - the microorganism is transferred with an inoculating loop
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Why is the equipment sterilised before?
To stop any other bacteria contaminating it - the equipment is passed through a flame
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What temperature are microorganisms grown at?
In a school - 25 degrees and in industry - 40 degrees
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Why are these temperatures important?
School - no harmful microorganisms can be grown at this temperature, industry - so the microorganisms can grow fast
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What was the role of Semmelweis
He told doctors to wash their hands as they were spreading diseases around hospitals
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What is a stimulus
A change in the environment
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What is the role of receptors
To detect stimuli - eg the eye detects light
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What is an effector
A muscle or a gland
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What is the role of the effectors
Muscles contract and glands secrete hormones
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What is the CNS - what does it consist of?
The central nervous system - consists of the brain and spinal cord
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What is a synapse?
A gap between two neurones- singals are transferred by chemicals that diffuse across the gap
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What is a reflex?
They are automatic responses to certain stimuli - eg moving away from pain
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What is the role of FSH?
It causes the egg to mature - stimulates production of oestrogen
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What is the role of oestrogen?
Inhibits production of FSH and stimulates production of LH
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What is the role of LH?
Releases the egg
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What does the oral contraceptive pill contain?
Oestrogen and progesterone
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How can you increase chances of pregnancy?
Increased levels of FSH and LH - IVF treatment where the egg is artifically fertilised outside of the body
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What is the plant growth hormone?
Auxin
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How does auxin affect shoots in response to light
Auxin accumilates on the shaded side - shoot grows towards the light
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How does auxin affect shoots in response to gravity?
Auxin accumilates on the bottom side - shoot grows away from gravity (up)
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How does auxin affect roots in response to gravity?
Auxin accumilates on the bottom side - shoots grow towards gravity (down)
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How does auxin affect roots in response to moisture?
Auxin accumilates on the side nearest the moisture - shoot grows towards moisture
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What is homeostasis?
All the functions of your body which try and maintain a "constant internal environment"
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How is ion content regulated?
Ion content is regulated by kidneys - some ions are lost in sweat - kidneys will remove the excess through urine
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How is blood sugar level regulated?
A hormone called Insulin helps to maintain blood sugar
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How is water lost from the body?
Through skin as sweat, through lungs in breath and through kidneys as urine
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How is body temperature controlled?
Body temp is controlled by the brain , your body tends to stay at around 37 degrees as that is when enzymes work their best
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What are medicinal drugs?
These are medically useful - they can be non-prescribed or prescribed
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What are recreational drugs?
These are used for fun - they can be legal or illegal
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What are performance enhancing drugs?
Often used in sport to boost performance - anabolic steroids
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What are the first two stages of drug testing?
First tested on human cells/tissue, then live animals
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What is a clinical trial?
Patients are split into two groups - one group reveives the new drug and one receives a placebo - neither the doctors or patients know who has what to avoid bias - only the company knows
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What is a placebo?
A dummy drug/ a sugar pill that has no effect
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What was Thalidomide originally used as?
A sleeping pill
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What was it thought to treat/why did it go wrong?
It was thought to treat morning sickness - however it had not been tested on pregnant women
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List some adaptions of desert animals
Large surface area compared to volume to keep cool, efficient with water - can store it, thin layers of fat, camoulfage
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List some adaptions of artic animals
Small surface area compared to volume to reduce heat loss - thick fur/thick layer of fat, camouflage
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How are plants adapted to survive?
Spines instead of leaves to reduce water loss, thick stem to store water, extensive roots to absorb as much water and nutrients
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What do plants compete for?
Light, space, water and minerals/nutrients
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What do animals compete for?
Territory, mates, food and water
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Name some living factors
Disease, more predators, less prey/food source
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Name some non-living factors
Temperature, rainfall, air/water pollution
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How can Lichens be used to measure environmental change?
Lichens are sensitive to sulfur dioxide - they will live in clean water where there is not a lot
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How do things decay?
They are broken down by microorganims/bacteria/fungi
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What are the best conditions for decay?
Warmth, moisture and oxygen
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Name some processes in the carbon cycle?
Combustion (burning), respiration, photosynthisis, death/decay, eating
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What is variation?
Differences in a species caused by gene mutations
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Describe sexual reproduction
Genetic information is combined to make offspring that are genetically different to the parents - they are a mix of genes - fusion of gametes
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Describe asexual reproduction
There is only one parent - offspring are genetically identical to parent
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Name two types of plant cloning
Cuttings and tissue culture
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Describe embryo transplants
Sperm and eggs are taken and artifically fertilised - an embryo is developed to produce lots of clones
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Describe adult cell cloning
An egg cell is taken and the nuclues is removed - an adult body cell is taken and the nuclues is removed. The nucleus from the body cell is inserted into the empty egg cell - they are fused together with an electric shock and an embryo is formed
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What was Darwin's theory?
Natural selection - some individuals have characteristics making them more adapted to survive - they pass on their genes to offspring
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What was Lamarck's theory?
Individuals aquire characteristics over their lifetime - eg giraffes needed to reach tall trees so their necks stretched over time - genes are passed on to offspring
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Why are fats important in your body?

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For warmth and to release energy

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Card 4

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Card 5

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