What is cardiovascular efficiency
how well the heart copes with exercise
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What side of the heart is oxygenated
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what is blood pressure
the force of blood per area
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When the heart muscle contracts what happens and what type of blood pressure is it
blood is forced into the artieries all over the body and it is called the systolic bp (top number)
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what pressure is it when the heart relaxes
diastolic blood pressure
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what is a healthy blood pressure
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Two ways to maintain a normal blood pressure
exercise and a balanced diet
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3 factors that increase blood pressure
stress, smoking, excess weight
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what is cholesterol
plaques in the arteries that constrict blood flow
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why is long term high blood pressure dangerous
blood vessels weaken and can eventually burst
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what is a burst blood vessel in the brain called
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why can low blood pressure also be a problem
poor circulation, some parts of body deprived of glucose and oxygen
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how does smoking increase BP
the carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin in red blood cells , preventing them from carrying as much oxygen
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what must a balanced diet contain
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what are carbs made up of
simple sugars like glucose
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what are fats made up of
fatty acids
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where are carbs stored
in the liver as glycogen or converted into fat
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where are fats stored
under the skin
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two types of amino acids and what are they
essential (you cannot make them) and non-essential (can be made in the body)
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two examples of first class proteins
meat and fish
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example of second class proteins
plant proteins
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what causes kwashiorkor
lack of protein
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what are infectious diseases caused by
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three ways a non-infectious disease is brought on
poor diet, organ malfunction & genetic inheritance
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what is cancer caused by
mutations in living cells
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three ways to reduce cancer
don't smoke, don't drink & healthy diet
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what is a tumour
when cells divide in an abnormal and uncontrolled way, forming lumps of cells (tumours)
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what are the two types of tumours
malignant and benign
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4 different types of pathogens
fungi, viruses, bacteria, protozoa
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what is pathogen is malaria caused by
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who are the hosts in malaria
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What are mosquitos
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3 defences against pathogens
skin, stomach (acid), blood clots
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what are phagocytes and what do they do
type of white blood cell anfd htey move around bloodstream searching for pathogens
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what do phagocytes do to pathogens
engulf and digest them
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what do lymphocytes do
recognise antigens on the surface of a pathogen and they produce antibodies that lock onto the antigens & kill the pathogens
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what can antibiotics treat
bacteria and fungi diseases
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3 ways a drgu can be tested by
computer models, animals, human tissue
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what does a blind trial do when testing drugs
eliminates psychological factors
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what is a double blind trial and what does it eliminate
neither volunteer or doctors know, eliminstes ALL bias
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what are neurones
adapted cells that can carry a nerve impulse
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3 types of neurone
sensory, relay, motor
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what does a sensory neurone do
carries nerve impulses from receptors to central nervous system
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what does a relay neurone do
makes connections beteen neurones in brain and spjnal cord
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what does a motor neurone do
carries nerve impulses from central nervous system to muscles and glands
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3 ways motor neurones are adapted and what they do
elongated shape to make connections, sheath which speeds up nerve impulse, branched endings which allow single neurones to connect to other neurones
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what is the small gap between neurones called
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what can the nervous system be divided into
central and peripheral
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what are receptors used for
to detect changes in environment of animals
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5 different types of receptors are
light, sound, taste, smell and touch
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what is binocular vision
when eyes are positioned close together on the front of the head
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what is monocular vision
when eyes on on either side of the head
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what is binocular vision good for
judging depth
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what is the iris
coloured part of the eye
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what does the retina do
contain receptor cells
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what does lens of the eye do
focuses light onto the retina
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what does the cornea do
refracts ligt
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what does the pupil do
is made bigger and smaller by iris
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what does the optic nerve in the eye do
carries impules to the brain via sensory neurones
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what is a blind spot
portion of the eye with no light sensitive cells
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3 common eye defects are
long sighted, short sighted, red-green colourblindness
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what do susoensory ligaments do
attach lens to the ciliary muscles
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5 types of drugs
stimulants, depressants, painkillers, perfomance enhancing & hallucinogens
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example of class A drug
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example of class B drug
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example of class C drug
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what type of drug is alcohol
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what is cirrhosis
liver damage due to liver having to work hard to remove toxic alcohol from the body
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what is one unit of alcohol
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what is meant by the term homeostasis
the bodies automatic conrol systems to maintain a constant internal environmeant to make sure cells function efficiently
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what can dehydration lead to
heat stroke
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what is hypothermia
when the body temp falls too far below 37 degrees, causes unconsciousness
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where is the pancreas in the body and what does it produce
located in upper abdomen, and produces insulin
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what is diabetes caused by
the pancreas not producing enough insulin
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what does insulin do
controls blood sugar levels
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what is type 1 diabetes caused by and how is it controlled
failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, controlle by insulin injections
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what is type 2 diabetes caused by
under-production of insulin as a result of fatty deposits, controlled by improving diet
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what are auxins and what do they do
chemicals that control plant growth
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which way do shoots grow
towards light
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which way do roots grow
away from the light
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3 examples of plant hormones
rooting powder, fuit ripening hormone, selective weedkillers
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where is auxin made
shoot tip of a plant (top)
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what does the nucleus contain
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what does DNA contain
many genes
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what what are chromosomes
long lengths of DNA
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what provides the genetic code
the bases
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how many pairs of chromosomes do humans have
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how many single chromosomes do gametes contain
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what is variation
differences between individuals of the same species
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3 causes of genetic variation and what they do
mutations which alter genes, differences between gametes, random fusion of an egg with a sperm cell
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what is an allele
alternative form of a gene
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what does a dominant allele do
control the develpment of a characteristic even if there is only one present
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what does a recessivr allele do
cotrols the development of a characteristic only when dominant is not present
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what does homozygous mean
when both chromosones contain the same allel of a gene
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what does heterozygous mean
when the chromosone pair contain different alleles of a gene
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3 examples of inherited diseases
colour blindness, sickle cell anemia snf systic fibrosis
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what is red-green colour blindness
when cells in eye cannot distinguish between red and green
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what is sickle cell anaemia
when cells become sickle-shaped resulting in circulatory problems and oxygen deficiency
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what is cystic fibrosis
when cell membranes produce excess mucus which blocks airways, causes breathing problems
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what is a reflex arc
the pathway for recieving and acting on information
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what is the process for a reflex action
stimulus, receptor, sensory neurone, relay neurone, motor neurone, effector, response
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what is a process of a volunteray action
stimulus, receptor, sensory neurone, coordinator, motor neurone, effector, response.
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what is a synapse
small gap between neurones
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what does a synapse do
allows eletrical impulses to travel from one neurone to another through diffusion
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what do suspensory ligaments in the eye do
attaches the les to the cilliary muscles
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what 4 things happens to the eye when looking at a distant object
cilliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments become taut, lengs becomes long and thin and light is only refracted a little
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what 4 things happen to the eye when looking at a near obejct
cilliary muscles contractm suspensory ligaments go slack, lens becomes short and fat and light is refracted a lot
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2 things that can cause long sightedness
an eyeball that is too short or by a lens that stays long and thin
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2 things that cause short sightedness
eyeball that is too long or weak suspensory ligaments which can't make the lens thin
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what lens is needed for long sightedness
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what lens is needed for short sightedness
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what happens during vasodilation and what does it cause
blood vessels dilate, this causes greater heat loss as more heat is loss through radtiation from the surface of the skin
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Card 2


What side of the heart is oxygenated



Card 3


what is blood pressure


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Card 4


When the heart muscle contracts what happens and what type of blood pressure is it


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Card 5


what pressure is it when the heart relaxes


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