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What factors cause a persons blood pressure to increase and reduced?
Increased by stress, high alcohol intake, smoking and being overweight. Reduced by regular exercise and eating a balanced diet.
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What can happen when blood pressure is too high?
Can cause blood vessels to burst which can damage the brain (stroke) or damage the kidneys.
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What can happen when blood pressure is too low?
Can lead to dizziness and fainting as the blood supply to the brain is reduced, and poor circulation to other areas such as the fingers and toes.
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How is the general level of fitness measured?
By cardiovascular efficiency.
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What are the different types of fitness that can be measured?
Strength, flexibility, stamina, agility and speed.
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How does smoking increase blood pressure?
Carbon monoxide causes the blood to carry less oxygen (because it combines with the haemoglobin in red blood cells) so heart rate increases so tissues can receive enough oxygen. Nicotine directly increases heart rate.
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How is the risk of heart disease increased?
By a high level of saturated fat in the diet leading to build up of cholesterol (a plaque) in the arteries. Also high levels of salt in the diet.
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Why does a build of cholesterol cause heart disease?
Because plaques in the coronary arteries cause arteries to narrow so reduce blood flow to the heart muscle. Plaques also make blood clots (thrombosis) more likely to happen which block the artery.
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What are carbohydrates made up of?
Simple sugars such as glucose.
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What are proteins made up of?
Amino acids.
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What are fats made up of?
Fatty acids and glycerol.
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What factors cause a variety of balanced diets?
Age, gender, level of activity, religion, vegetarian or vegan, medical issues (food allergies).
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Where are carbohydrates stored?
In the liver as glycogen or converted into fats.
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Where are fats stored?
Under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue.
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Where are proteins stored?
They cannot be stored in the body.
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What happens when there is a lack of protein in the diet and where is this more common?
Causes a condition called kwashiorkor; more common in developing countries due to overpopulation and lack of money to improve agriculture.
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What could affect EAR for protein?
Body mass, age, pregnancy, or breast feeding (lactation).
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What are first class proteins?
From meat and fish; they contain all essential amino acids that cannot be made by the human body.
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What are second class proteins?
Plant proteins; they don't contain all the essential amino acids.
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Recall the meaning of the numbers in BMI.
More than 30 = obese, 25-30 = overweight, 20-25 = normal, less than 20 = underweight.
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What is Plasmodium?
A protozoan that causes malaria and feeds on human red blood cells.
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How does Plasmodium cause malaria?
It is carried by mosquitoes (vectors) and is transmitted to humans by mosquito bites. The Plasmodium is a parasite and humans are the host.
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What is a vector?
An animal that carries a pathogen without suffering from it.
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What is a parasite?
An organism that lives on (or inside) the body of another organism.
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How can the spreading of malaria be stopped through knowledge about mosquitoes?
By draining stagnant water, putting oil on the water surface and spraying insecticide. This knowledge has also helped develop new treatments for malaria.
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Suggest some changes in lifestyle that can reduce the risk of some cancers.
Not smoking (risk of lung cancer) and using sunscreen (risk of skin cancer).
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What are benign tumour cells?
They divide slowly and are harmless e.g. warts.
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What are malignant tumours?
The cells display uncontrolled growth and may spread e.g. cancers.
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How do pathogens produce the symptoms of an infectious disease?
By damaging the body's cells or producing poisonous waste products called toxins.
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How does the body protect itself from pathogens?
By producing antibodies which lock onto antigens on the surface of pathogens such as bacterium; this kills the pathogen.
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Which cells produce antibodies and what is active immunity?
Human white blood cells, resulting in active immunity - this can be a slow process but has long lasting effect.
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What is passive immunity?
Vaccinations using antibodies from another human or animal results in passive immunity - it has a quick but short term effect.
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Why are new antibodies produced for new pathogens?
Because each pathogen has its own antigens.
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Explain the process of immunisation (vaccination).
Injecting a harmless pathogen carrying antigens, the antigens trigger a response by white blood cells to produce the antibodies, then memory cells (a type of T-lymphocyte cell) remains in the body which gives long-lasting immunity to the disease.
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What is the action of antibiotics?
Fight against bacteria and fungi and destroys a pathogen.
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What is the action of antiviral drugs?
Fight against viruses and slows down the pathogen's development.
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How are new treatments tested (vaccinations etc)?
Using animals, human tissue and computer models before human trials. Some people think it causes animals to suffer.
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What is a placebo?
It is a harmless pill. They are used as a comparison in drug testing so the effect of a new drug can be assessed.
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What happens in a blind trial/double blind trial?
The patient doesn't know whether they are receiving a new drug or a placebo. In a double blind trial, neither the patient nor doctor know which treatment is being used. These trials avoid biased opinion.
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How does excessive use of antibiotics result in resistance to them?
Has resulted in resistant forms of bacteria being more common than non-resistant forms e.g. resistant MRSA.
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What is binocular vision?
It helps to judge distance by comparing images from each eye; the more different they are, the nearer the object.
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What is accommodation?
The eye's ability to change focus (focus of light by altering the shape of the lens).
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How does the eye focus on distant objects?
The ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments tighten and the lens has a less rounded shape.
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How does the eye focus on near objects?
The ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments slacken and the lens regains a more rounded shape.
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What is the function of the ciliary muscles?
Control the suspensory ligaments.
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What is the function of the cornea?
Refracts light rays.
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What is the function of the pupil?
Allows light rays to enter the eye.
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What is the function of the iris?
Controls the amount of light entering the eye.
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What is the function of the convex lens?
Refracts light rays and focuses light onto the retina.
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What is the function of the retina?
Focused image formed on the retina, which is sensitive to light.
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What is the function of the optic nerve?
Carries nerve impulses to the brain.
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What is the function of the suspensory ligaments?
Alter the shape of the lens in focusing.
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What causes red-green colour blindness?
A lack of specialised cells in the retina.
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What causes long sight?
The eyeball is too short or the lens is too thin, so the image is focused behind the retina.
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What causes short sight?
The eyeball is too long or the lens is too rounded so the lens refracts light too much so the image is focused in front of the retina.
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How is long and short sight corrected?
By corneal surgery or glasses. Convex lens (long sight) and concave lens (short sight).
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What are neurones?
Nerve cells.
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What is an axon?
Part of a neurone that carries nerve impulse.
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What are the links in a reflex arc?
stimulus -> receptor -> sensory neurone -> central nervous system -> motor neurone -> effector -> response
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What is the pathway for a spinal reflex?
receptor -> sensory neurone -> relay neurone -> motor neurone -> effector
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How are neurones adapted?
Being long, having branched endings (dendrites) to pick up impulses and having an insulator sheath.
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What is a synapse?
The gap between two neurones.
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How does the impulse continue (synapse)?
The arrival of an impulse triggers the release of a transmitter substance, which diffuses across the synapse. The transmitter substance binds with receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neurone causing the impulse to continue.
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What is the difference between a Class A drug and a Class C drug?
Class A drugs are the most dangerous and have the heaviest penalties, Class C drugs are the least dangerous and have the lightest penalties.
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What are the different types of drugs?
Depressants (alcohol, solvents), painkillers (aspirin, paracetamol), stimulants (nicotine, MDMA, caffeine), performance enhancers (anabolic steroids), hallucinogens (LSD).
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How do depressants block the transmission of nerve impulses across synapses?
By binding with receptor molecules in the membrane of the receiving neurone.
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How do stimulants affect synapses?
Cause more neurotransmitter substances to cross synapses.
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What causes a 'smoker's cough'?
The cigarette smoke contains many chemicals that stop cilia moving. The cough is because dust and particulates in smoke collect and irritate the epithelial lining and mucus not being moved by the cilia.
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What are cilia?
Tiny hairs found in the epithelial lining of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.
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How is the content of alcohol in alcoholic drinks measured?
By units of alcohol.
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What affects does drinking alcohol have?
Increases reaction times and the risk of accidents.
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What is cirrhosis?
When the liver is damaged from breaking down toxic chemicals e.g. alcohol.
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What is homeostasis?
Keeping a constant internal environment; it involves balancing bodily inputs and outputs.
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What is the role of automatic control systems?
They keep the levels of temperature, water and carbon dioxide steady so all cells can work at their optimum level.
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What are negative feedback controls?
They are used in homeostasis to act to cancel out a change such as a decreasing temperature level.
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What is the optimum body temperature?
37C because it is linked to the optimum temperature for many enzymes.
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What does a high temperature cause?
Heat stroke (skin becomes cold and clammy and pulse is rapid and weak) and dehydration (loss of too much water).
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Why is heat stroke, dehydration and hypothermia a concern?
Because they can be fatal if not treated.
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What is the body's response to avoid overheating?
Sweating increases heat transfer from the body to the environment because the evaporation of sweat requires body heat to change the liquid sweat into water vapour.
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What can happen when body temperature becomes too low?
It can cause hypothermia (slow pulse rate, violent shivering).
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What is vasoconstriction?
The constriction (narrowing) of small blood vessels in the skin which causes less blood flow and less heat transfer.
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What is vasodilation?
The dilation (widening) of small blood vessels in the skin which causes more blood to flow near the skin surface resulting in more heat transfer.
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What hormone controls blood sugar levels?
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Why is hormone action slower than nervous reactions?
Because hormones travel in the blood.
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What causes type 1 diabetes?
The pancreas doesn't produce any insulin so must be treated with doses of insulin (varies according to person's diet and activity).
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What causes type 2 diabetes?
Either the body produces too little insulin or the body doesn't react to it; it can be controlled by diet.
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How does insulin control blood sugar level?
As insulin converts excess glucose in the blood to glycogen which is stored in the liver.
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What is phototropism?
A plant's growth response to light.
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What is geotropism?
A plant's growth response to gravity.
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How do shoots respond to light?
Positively phototropic (grow towards light) and negatively geotropic (grow away from pull of gravity).
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How do roots respond to light?
Negatively phototropic (grow away from light) and positively geotropic (grow with the pull of gravity).
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What are auxins?
A group of plant hormones; they are made in the root and shoot tip. They move through the plant in solution. Auxins are involved in phototropism and geotropism.
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Why do shoots curve towards the light?
More auxin is found in the shady part of shoots. As a higher amount of auxin increases the length of cells, cell length in the shady side increases and causes curvature towards the light.
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What are the commercial uses for plant hormones?
Selective weedkillers (increases crop yield), rooting powder (increases root growth), delay/accelerate fruit ripening (meets market demands) and to control dormancy in seeds.
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene.
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What is genetic variation caused by?
Mutations, rearrangement of genes during the formation of gametes, and fertilisation.
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What is homozygous?
Having identical alleles.
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What is heterozygous?
Having different alleles.
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What does dominant mean?
An allele that will produce the characteristic if present.
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What does recessive mean?
Two recessive alleles needed to produce the characteristic.
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What us is 'nature or nurture'?
The debate over how much genetic or environmental factors affect intelligence, sporting ability and health.
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How many chromosomes are there in a human cell?
23 pairs.
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What determines sex in mammals?
Sex chromosomes (** female XY male). The egg carries the X chromosome and the sperm carries X or Y. Therefore, there is a random and equal chance of the offspring being male or female.
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What is a mutation?
Where the DNA within cells have been altered (this happens in cancer).
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What is a monohybrid cross?
It involves only one pair of characteristics controlled by a single gene, one allele being dominant and one recessive.
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What is genotype?
A person's genetic makeup.
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What is phenotype?
Which alleles are expressed.
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What causes inherited disorders?
Faulty genes (most of which are recessive).
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What personal/ethical issues are raised by inherited disorders?
Deciding to have a genetic test (positive result could alter lifestyle/career/insurance), and by knowing the risks of passing on an inherited disorder (whether to marry/have a family).
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How is it possible to predict the probability of inheriting such disorders?
By interpreting genetic diagrams.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What can happen when blood pressure is too high?


Can cause blood vessels to burst which can damage the brain (stroke) or damage the kidneys.

Card 3


What can happen when blood pressure is too low?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How is the general level of fitness measured?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the different types of fitness that can be measured?


Preview of the front of card 5
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