B1

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What is classification
grouping organisms based on their characteristics
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Order of classification
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
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Five kingdoms
animalia, plantae, prokaryotae, protoctista and fungi
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Animalia features
multicellular, nucleus, heterotroph
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Plantae features
multicellular, autotroph, nucleus
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Prokaryotae features
unicellular, no nucleus
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Fungi features
multicellular, nucleus, saprophytes
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Protoctista features
unicellular, nucleus
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Phylum chordata
supporting rod running the length of the body
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Organisms classed as vertebrates
fish, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians
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Fish features
gills, oviparous, poikilotherm, external fertilisation
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Reptile features
poikilotherm, internal fertilisation, lungs, oviparous
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Mammal features
internal fertilisation, lungs, viviparous, homeotherms
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Bird features
internal fertilisation, lungs, homeotherm, oviparous
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Amphibian features
lungs, gills and skin, poikilotherm, oviparous, external fertilisation
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How do we validate new discoveries
1. publish evidence in scientific journal 2. peer review 3. scientific conference
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Binomial naming system
Genus and Species, universal two part latin name
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Define species
a group of organisms with similar characteristics but variations and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
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Hybrids
have features from both parents e.g. grolar bear. when a male and a female from 2 different species reproduce
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What is hybridisation
the process of making hybrids
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BB
homozygous dominant
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bb
homozygous recessive
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Bb
heterozygous
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What causes a genetic disorder
inheriting a faulty allele that can be dominant or recessive
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What does cystic fibrosis cause
thick mucus. in the lungs it can cause coughs and infections and difficulty breathing. in the intestines it can cause less small soluble molecules to be absorbed. in the pancreas it can block the release of digestive enzymes so ....
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What does sickle cell cause
it can cause tiredness, painful joints and possible blood clots
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What are the three types of variation
environmental, genetic or both.
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Give some examples of environmental variation
suntan, freckles, scars - discontinuous/discrete
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Give examples of genetic variation
eye colour, blood group - discontinuous/discrete
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Examples of both genetic and environmental variation
heigh, weight - continuous
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Adaptations
changes in the body to fit a location - helps organisms to survive to pass on genes to their offspring ensuring survival.
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Polar bear adaptations
white fur for camouflage - can sneak up on food and so don't die. thick fur to keep it warm so it doesn't freeze. large paws increase SA so ice doesn't break
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Pompeii worm adaptations
thick layer of bacteria - protect it from heat that varies from 40-90 degrees. body adapted to pressures of over 200x atmosphere at sea level.
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Evolution
development of a new species over time through a process of natural selection
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Stages of natural selection
variation, over production, competition, survival of the fittest, advantageous characteristics and gradual change
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Homeostasis
maintaining a constant internal environment
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What happens in glucose levels are too high
pancreas produces insulin, insulin tells liver to store excess glucose as glycogen which is stored in liver and muscle tissue. levels return to a normal range and mechanisms are switched off.
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What happens in glucose levels are too low
pancreas produces glucagon. this tell livers to turn stored glycogen into glucose. the glucose is released into the blood. levels return to a normal rand and the mechanisms are switched off.
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Vasoconstriction
if you are too cold. blood vessels near the skin surface constrict allowing less blood to slow near the skin surface. this means that less head is radiated out which warms you up. switched off at 37 degrees
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Shivering
if temperatures go below 37 degrees. muscles contract and relax. this generates heat and so warms you up
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Hair standing upright
too cold. erector muscle contracts and pulls hair upright. this traps a layer of air which acts as an insulating layer by reducing the heat loss through convection
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Negative feedback
1. body detects a change in a constant variable 2. body switches of corrective mechanisms to return the variable to normal 3. mechanisms are switched off when variable returns to normal
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Sweating
temperature above 37 degrees. sweat is produced and it evaporates from the skin taking hear away from the skin with it. this cools the skin surface down and sweat is not produced when temperature returns to normal.
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Vasodilation
when too hot. blood vessels near the skin surface dilate/widen. this allows more blood to flow near the skin surface so more heat is radiated out through the skin surface. this stops at 37 degrees
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Hairs on arm lay flat
too hot. hairs lay flat so no insulating layer of air is trapped
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What is the endocrine system
it is a gland system that releases hormones
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What is a hormone
a chemical messenger that travels in the blood. it has a target organ and an effect is produced.
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What is the central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord only
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What are nerves made from
bundles of neurones
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What does a neurone do and what are the three types
they are a nerve cells that transfers electrical impulses. sensory, relay and motor
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What is an effector
something that is carrying out the response
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Describe the role of neurotransmitters
nerve impulses cannot jump the synapse and so use shape specific chemicals called neurotransmitters to pass the nerve impulses from one nerve to the next
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What are co-ordinated responses
a decision that is made, it requires processing
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What is an involuntary response
an automatic response e.g. reflexes
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What is the reflex arc
stimulus, receptor cell, sensory neurone, synapse, relay neurone, spinal cord, motor neurone, effector, response
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What is diabetes
when a person cannot control/regulate their blood glucose levels
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Type 1 diabetes
where no insulin is made, genetic, controlled by insulin injections in subcutaneous fat layer, exercise and low carbohydrate diet
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Type 2 diabetes
some insulin is made or it is the wrong kind or the body is resistant. caused by a poor diet, lack of exercise,age and ethnicity can also be an influence. controlled mainly through diet and exercise - possible injections
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What is a tropism
growth in response to a stimulus
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Phototropism
auxin accumulates on the shaded side of root and causes cells to elongate so shoot bends
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Why do plants use phototropism
more sunlight so more photosynthesis, more glucose is made for respiration which releases energy for growth
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Gravitropism
auxin accumulates on underside of root inhibiting cell growth so cells at the top grow longer and the root bends down
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Seedless fruit
gibberellins cause fruit to have no seeds
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Selective weedkiller
auxins kill larger leafed weeds so there is less competition and therefore a higher crop yield
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Rooting powder
auxins allow freshly cut shoots to grow roots quickly
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Fruit ripening
ethylene speeds up or delays the ripening of fruit
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What is the definition of a drug
a chemical substance that affects the nervous system changing the way the body works physically and/or mentally
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What do painkillers do
block some nerve impulses from damaged or swollen areas of the body so we feel less pain e.g. morphine, paracetamol
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Hallucinogens
change the way the brain works and distorts the senses. causes hallucinogens which can make you confused, sad, easily upset
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Stimulants
speed up the transmission of nerve impulses across the synapse, making reaction times shorter. can keep you awake which leads to physical exhaustion or becoming highly strung
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Depressants
relaxing as they slow down activity of neurones in the brain. they are addictive and can cause irritability, aggression or make you feel confused e.g. alcohol
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Tar
carcinogen, coats alveoli which damages them making gas exchange difficult which could lead to emphysema. can also damage ciliated cells which moves mucus and so smokers cough to move the mucus which can lead to bronchitis
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Nicotine
addictive drug, stimulant so raises heart rate and blood pressure, narrows blood vessels which leads to heart disease
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Carbon monoxide
binds to red blood cells and so reduces amount of O2 that red blood cells carry by forming carboxyhemoglobin. less O2 = breathing system must work harder and can cause muscle pain in the legs
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Scientific criteria for transplants
1. have similar tissues 2. similar ages 3. geographically close 4. how ill the patient is
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Short term effects of alcohol abuse
being sick, slurred speech, lowered inhibitions, blurred vision
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Long term effects of alcohol abuse
liver cirrhosis, brain damage e.g. memory problems and leaning difficulties
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What is the definition of a microbe
a micro-organism - because you only see them through a microscope as too small to see with the eye e.g. fungi, protozoans, viruses
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What is the definition of a pathogen
micro-organisms that cause infectious diseases when they are passed from one person to someone who is not infected
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What does fungi cause and how is it spread
athletes foot, contact, itching and burning
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What does bacteria cause and how is it spread
salmonella, food, sick, diarrhoea
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What do viruses cause and how are they spread
influenza, airborne, coughing, sneezing and fever
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What do protoctists cause and how are they spread
malaria, animal vector e.g. anopheles mosquito
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What are antibiotics
drug used to kill bacteria or prevent them from multiplying which is taken into the body - doesn't work on viruses
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What are antiseptics
substances that prevent pathogens from multiplying on the body and other surfaces
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What is antibacterial
substances that prevent bacteria from multiplying but are toxic to ingest e.g. antibacterial soap
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What so antifungals do
substances that kill fungi
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Define interdependent
organisms depend on other organisms to survive
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Define trophic level
one level of a food chain
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Why are food chains not as good as food webs
food chains are not as good as they don't show all alternatives
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Define biomass
amount of organic material found in an organism
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What does a pyramid of biomass show
a measure of the amount of dry mass. energy levels less due to growth, excretion etc.
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How to energy levels decrease between food chains
excretion, growth, movement, reproduction
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Define parasitism
a feeding relations where one organism is harmed and one organism benefits
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Define mutualism
a relationship between organisms where both benefit e.g. oxpecker and the ox
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What are some tape worm adaptations
-flat body to absorb more nutrients as large surface area. - coated in substances that stop digestive enzymes working so it insert digested. - hooks and suckers to attach to intestine wall
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What does blackspot fungus show
blackspot fungus grows well on roses in unpolluted areas and is killed in sulphur dioxide
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What tests for air pollution
indicator species e.g. lichen
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What animals would be found in a pollution level 10 area
least CO2 - mayfly nymphs, stonefly nymphs
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What animals would be found in a pollution level 1 area
most CO2 - blood worms
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What is an indicator species
a species that is particularly tolerant or sensitive of pollution so that its presence or absence can be used as a measure of pollution
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What is eutrophication
excess nitrates and other nutrients are washed into rivers. high amounts of nitrates make the surface plants grow rapidly and these block the sunlight. plants underneath receive no O2 & can't photosynthesis. O2 levels go down & decomposers dead plant
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What do nitrifying bacteria do
convert ammonia into nitrates and then into nitrites
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What do denitrifying bacteria do
convert nitrites into nitrogen gas
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What do nitrogen fixing bacteria do
found in root nodules of legumes. they turn nitrogen in the air into nitrates
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How do plants absorb nitrates
through their roots by active transport
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What do plants use nitrates for
making amino acids/proteins
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What is a genotype
the underlying genes that produce a phenotype
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What is a ring species
a group of related population that live in neighbouring areas
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When can't a ring species produce fertile offspring
when distant populations attempt to reproduce
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What is speciation
the development of new species because of changing conditions
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3 steps of speciation
isolation, changing conditions and inability to produce fertile offspring so species become separate
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What is a gene
a short section of the DNA
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What is an allele
different versions of the same gene
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What are dendrons
the branched ending of a neurone
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What is a synapse
gap between to neurones
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What is the roll of the Myelin sheath
fatty insulator that speeds up electrical impulses
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What is an animal vector
an animal that spreads disease
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How is malaria spread
by the animal vector, anopheles mosquito. it caries the the protozoan
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2 physical barriers humans have to stop pathogens
skin and scabs
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What are the chemical barriers against pathogenic spread
acidic stomach acid and lysozymes in tears
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How do bacteria become resistant to antibacterials
they mutate - only the non-resistant bacterium will be killed leaving the mutated ones to reproduce and take over
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Name three ways carbon is released
burning fossil fuels, respiration and decay
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Order of classification

Back

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

Card 3

Front

Five kingdoms

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Animalia features

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Plantae features

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

sameerrugby

Awesome soo useful!

Fatima

That's B2 not B1

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