attachment ; schaffer's stages

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KEY STUDY: SCHAFFER AND EMERSON
RGGD
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what did they aim to investigate?
formation of early attachments
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in particular which three things?
age of development / emo. intensity / to whom directed
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how many babies were involved?
60
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gender split?
31 male / 29 female
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where were they all from?
glasgow
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and majority what background?
skilled working-class
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how often were babies visited for first year?
once a month
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where?
home
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and once again at what age?
18 months
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rsrchers asked mothers qs about kind of protest babies showed in how many everyday separations?
seven
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a measure of?
separation anxiety
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what was this designed to measure?
infant's attachment
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researcher also assessed stranger anxiety which is?
infant's anxiety response to unfamiliar adults
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- findings
dgdfgd
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between 25-32 weeks what % babies showd separation anxiety toward particualr adult?
50%
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which adult was this usually?
mother
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what is that called?
specific attachment
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attachment tended to be to caregiver who was most?
interactive and sensitive to signals / facial expressions (reciprocity)
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was this also the person with whom the infant spent most time?
not neccessarily
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by 40w what %babies had specific attachment?
80%
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and almost 30% displayed what?
multiple attachments
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EVALUATION
DFGDFG
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:) good external validity
dfhfg
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where was the study carried out specifically?
in families' homes
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and most of the observation was done by who?
parents
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during?
ordinary activities
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meaning behaviour of babies unlikely to be affected by what?
presence of observers
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excellent chance babies behaved how while being observed?
naturally
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therefore we can say study has good/
external validity
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:) longitudinal study
boyhood (2014) is quacking once again
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what does it mean that this was carried out longitudinally?
same children followed up and observed regularly
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what would the quicker alternative have been?
to observe different children @ each age
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what type of design would that be?
cross-sectional design
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however longitudinal designs have better what kind of validity than cross-sectional?
internal validity
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because don't have confounding variable of?
individual differences between pps
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which is also known as?
pp variables
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:( limited sample characteristics
dfgd
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sample size good considering what about data?
large volume
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however what is a limitation?
all pps were from same district / social class / time in world
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child-rearing practices vary due to which two things?
different historical periods / different cultures
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so we can't neccessarily do what with findings?
generalise to other social / historical contexts
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STAGES OF ATTACHMENT
DFHFDHD
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name the 4 stages. go
asocial stage / indiscriminate attachment / specific attachment / multiple attachments
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- stage one ; asocial stage
dfdf
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when does this occur
first few weeks
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why is this not really an asocial stage?
bc baby is still recognising and forming bonds with carers
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however baby's behaviour toward which two things is quite similar?
non/human objects
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why do babies show some preference to familiar adults?
those individuals find it easier to calm them
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when are babies also happier?
when in presence of other humans
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- stage two ; indiscriminate attachment
dfgd
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when do babies display more obs. social behaviour?
2-7 months
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what do they show a preference to people over?
inanimate objects
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and recognise and prefer?
familiar adults
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what do they usually accept from any adult?
cuddles and comfort
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and what two anxieties do they not usually show?
separation / stranger anxiety
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why then is their attachment behaviour said to be indiscriminate?
not different towads any one person
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- stage three ; specific attachment
dfgd
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from around what age?
seven months
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start to display anxiety towards who?
strangers
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and become anxious when?
separated from one particular adult
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in what % cases is this the biological mother?
65%
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what is that adult now termed as?
primary attachment figure
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what does this person offer most?
interaction and response to signals best
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but doesn't neccessarily have to do what?
spend most time with them
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- stage four ; multiple attachments
dfgdfg
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what are attachments to non-primary caregivers called?
secondary attachments
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and occur when?
shortly after specific attachment
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in s+e study what % children had 2ndary attachments within 1m of primary?
29
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by what age do the majority of infants have multiple attachments?
1yr
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EVALUATION
DFGDFG
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:( problem studying the asocial stage
dfigdf
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why is it physically a problem to be studying young babies at that age?
they're pretty much immobile
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therefore difficult to do what?
make judgements based on observation of behaviour
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however what does lack of physical behaviour not meen?
no feelings and cognitions
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therefore?
observational evidence cannot be relied on
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:( conflicting evidence on multiple attachment
dfgd
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what is not entirely clear about this stage?
when it happnes
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what does bowlby's research seem to suggest about primary and multiple attachments?
most if not all babies form attachments to one main carer before multiple
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psychologists that work in what context in particular disagree?
collectivist cultures where multiple carers are norm
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for example what does van ijzendoorn think?
babies form multiple attachments from the outset
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why are these cultures collectivits?
families work together jointly in everyting
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:( measuring multiple attachment
ddg
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what might there be a problem with in researching multip attachment?
the way it's assessed
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just bc baby gets distressed when infiv leaves what does this not necessarily mean?
individual is 'true' attachment figure
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what did bowlby point out that babies have as well as attachment figures?
playmates
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and what do they do when playmate leaves?
get distressed
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but does not signigy?
attachment
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prob bc does not leave us way tp distinguish which two relationships?
secondary attachments and playmates
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Card 2

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what did they aim to investigate?

Back

formation of early attachments

Card 3

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in particular which three things?

Back

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Card 4

Front

how many babies were involved?

Back

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Card 5

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gender split?

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