Work of Schaffer
Attachment = Long enduring, emotionally meaningful tie to a particular individual.
Tie is characterised by a desire for CLOSENESS or PROXIMITY to particular individual.
SEPARATION causes DISTRESS when tie is broken or disrupted.
Attachment object offers comfort and acts as a source of security.
SCHAFFER AND EMERSON studied 60 babies and found these attachment types at different stages/ages.
SCHAFFER AND EMERSON
Stages of Attachment
ASOCIAL (0-6 weeks) - babies respond to both people and objects although they prefer 'human-like' stimulus.
DIFFUSE (6 weeks-6 months) - Babies show no preference for an individual and can be comforted by anyone.
SINGLE STRONG ATTACHMENT - (7-12 months) - Babies show strong preference to individual and fear of strangers.
MULTIPLE ATTACHMENTS (12 months+) Babies show attachment towards several figures. By 18 months some infants have as many as 5 attachment figures.