Attachment - Key terms

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Attachment
An emotional bond between 2 people. A 2-way process that endures over time. It leads to certain behaviour such as clinging and proximity-seeking, and serves the function of protecting an infant
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Caregiver
Any person whi is providing care for a child, such as a parent, grandparent, sibling, family member, childminder and so on
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Interactional Synchrony
When 2 people interact they tend to mirror one another, in terms of facial and body movements. This includes imitating emotions as well as behaviours. (When 2 (or more) things move in the same pattern
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Reciprocity
Responding to the action of another with a similar action, where the actions of one partner elicit (draw out) a response from the other partner. The responses are not necessarily similar as in Interactional Synchrony
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Multiple Attachment
Having more than one attachment figure
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Primary Attachment Figure
The person who has formed the closest bond with a child, demonstrated by the intensity of the relationship. Usually the child's biological mother, other people can fulfil the role (e.g. Adoptive mother, father, sibling etc)
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Separation Anxiety
The distress shown by an infant when separated from their caregiver. This is not necessarily the child's biological mother
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Stranger Anxiety
The distress shown by an infant when approached/picked up by someone who is unfamiliar
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Imprinting
An innate readiness to develop a strong bond with the mother, which takes place during a specific time in development. Probably the first few hours after birth. If it doesnt happen at this time it probably won't happen.
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Classical Conditioning
Learning through association. A NS is consistently paired with an US so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a CR
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Learning Theory
The name given to a group of explanations (clasical and operant conditioning), which explain behaviour in terms of learning rather than any inborn tendencies or higher order thinking
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Operant Conditioning
Learning through reinforcement
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Social Learning Theory
Learning through observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded
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Continuity Hypothesis
The idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting and socially confident adults
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Critical Period
A biologically determined period of time, during which certain characteristics can develop. Outside of this time window such development will not be possible
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Internal Working Model
A mental model of the world which enables individuals to predict and control their environment. In the case if attachment the model relates to a person's expectations about relationships
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Monotropy (Monotropic)
The idea that the one relationship that the infant has with their Primary Attachment Figure
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Social Releaser
A social behaviour or characteristic that elicits (draws out) cargiving and leads to attachment
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Insecure-Avoidant
A type of attachment which describes those children who tend to avoid interaction and intimacy with others
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Insecure-Resistant
A type of attachment which descries those infants who both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction (i.e. resist)
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Secure Attachment
This is a strong and contented attachment of an infant with their caregiver, which develops as a result of sensitive responding by the cargiver to the infant's needs. Securely attached infants are more comfortable with social interaction and intimacy
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Strange Situation
A controlled observation designed to test attachment security
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Cultural Variations
The ways that different groups of people vary in terms of their social practices, and the effects these practices have on development and behaviour
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Deprivation
To be deprived is to lose something. In the context of child development, deprivation refers to the loss of emotional care that is normally provided by a primary caregiver
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Institutionalisation
The effect of institutional care. In psychology focuses specifically on how time spent in an institution such as an orphanage can affect the development of children. Effects include social, mental and physical underdevelopment. May be irreversible
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Internal Working Model
A mental model of the world which enables individuals to predict and control their environment. In case of attachment the model relates to a person's expectations about relationships
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Any person whi is providing care for a child, such as a parent, grandparent, sibling, family member, childminder and so on

Back

Caregiver

Card 3

Front

When 2 people interact they tend to mirror one another, in terms of facial and body movements. This includes imitating emotions as well as behaviours. (When 2 (or more) things move in the same pattern

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Responding to the action of another with a similar action, where the actions of one partner elicit (draw out) a response from the other partner. The responses are not necessarily similar as in Interactional Synchrony

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Having more than one attachment figure

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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