ATP Production in Respiration

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What is oxidative phosphorelation?
Adding phosphate to ADP in the the presence of oxygen to make ATP.
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What do NAD and FAD do?
They are co-enzymes which pick up H atoms and help dehydrogenase enzymes to work. They later release these and they split into electrons and H+ ions.
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Describe the process of oxidative phosphorelation.
The electron carriers are held in the cristae- they pick up the electrons and are then reduced. Each carrier passes the electron onto the next one and is oxidised when it's passed on- energy is released which is used to make ATP.
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What happens at the end of oxidative phosphorelation?
The electrons and H+ ions rejoin to form hydrogen atoms and these then reduce oxygen (the final acceptor molecule) to form water.
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What are the electron carriers?
Enzymes with haem non-protein co-factors attached. It's the haem group that accepts or donates electrons.
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How is the ATP made?
When the H-atoms split, the electrons release energy as they go down the carrier chain. This energy is used to move the H+ ions into the intermembrane space. This causes H+ ions to build up in this space, creating an electrochemical gradient.
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What happens in chemiosmosis (once the electrochemical gradient is created)?
H+ ions diffuse down the gradient by passing through protein molecules (stalked particles). These channels allow the H+ ions to diffuse back across. As they do, ATPase enzymes are activated so ATP is made as the H+ ions diffuse through.
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Give two pieces of evidence for chemiosmosis.
pH on one side of the membranes with ETC is higher than the other, suggests H+ ions are being moved across the membrane. Chemical ions that prevent H+ ions being transported across the membrane also stop ATP being produced.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do NAD and FAD do?

Back

They are co-enzymes which pick up H atoms and help dehydrogenase enzymes to work. They later release these and they split into electrons and H+ ions.

Card 3

Front

Describe the process of oxidative phosphorelation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens at the end of oxidative phosphorelation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the electron carriers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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