Approaches in psychology

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  • Created by: yit43
  • Created on: 30-04-16 20:16
Introspection
Studying the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations
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The behaviourist approach
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what's observable and in terms of learning
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Classical conditioning
Learning by association
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Operant conditioning
A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences e.g punishment and reinforcement
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Reinforcement
A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated.
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Social learning theory
A way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement
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Vicarious reinforcement
Reinforcement which isn't directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour
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Mediational processes
Cognitive factors that influence learning and come between stimulus and response
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The cognitive approach
This approach focuses on how our mental processes affect behaviour
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Schema
A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing
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The biological approach
Emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body
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Genotype
The particular set of genes that a person possesses
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Phenotype
The characteristics of an individual determined by both genes and the environment
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Sensory neuron
These carry messages from the PNS to the CNS; they have long dendrites and short axons
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Relay neuron
These connect the sensory neurons to the motor or other relay neurons; they have short dendrites and short axons
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Motor neurons
They connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands; they have short dendrites and long axons
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Psychodynamic approach
A perspective that describes the different forces, most of which are unconscious, that operate on the mind and direct human behaviour and experience
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Card 2

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A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what's observable and in terms of learning

Back

The behaviourist approach

Card 3

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Learning by association

Back

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Card 4

Front

A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences e.g punishment and reinforcement

Back

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Card 5

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A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated.

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Preview of the back of card 5
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