# Animal Sampling Methods (2.3.1)

Why is it hard to sample animals in a habitat?
Animals will detect your presence and hide away.
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How do you sample animals?
Catch or trap the animals, then estimate the numbers from the trapped sample.
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What is sweep netting?
Sweep the net through vegetation in wide arcs. Empty the contents of the white sheet on the net to identify them. This sampling is good for low vegetation.
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How could you prevent animals escaping from the white sheet?
Using a pooter to **** up animals into a container.
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How could you collect animals from trees?
Spread a white sheet under a branch and knock the branch with a stick. Small animals will drop onto the sheet.
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How does a pitfall trap work?
A small container is buried in the soil with it's rim just below the surface. Animals will fall into the container.
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What is a Tullgren funnel?
A device for collecting small animals from leaf litter. The leaf litter is placed in a funnel. A light above the litter drives the animals downwards. They fall through a screen and are collected in a jar underneath.
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What is a light trap?
A UV light attracts insects, and under the light is a collecting vessel containing alcohol.
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What is the method for estimating population size?
Mark, Release, Recapture.
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Describe the marking process.
Catch as many individuals as possible, count them, then mark them in some way.
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Describe the release process.
Return back to habitat and allow them to mix back in.
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Describe the recapture process.
After some time, take another large sample from the population. Count the number that are marked and unmarked.
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What is the equation for estimated population size?
Estimated population size= (no. in 1st sample X no. in 2nd sample) / no. marked in 2nd sample
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Why do the samples need to be large?
To get a reliable estimate of population size.
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Give 2 assumptions when using the MRR method.
Enough time allowed for marked individuals to mix back in. Marking doesn't reduce survival chances or make them vulnerable.
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Give 2 more assumptions when using the MRR method.
No births or deaths in population during study. No immigration/emigration to or from the population during study.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

How do you sample animals?

#### Back

Catch or trap the animals, then estimate the numbers from the trapped sample.

### Card 3

#### Front

What is sweep netting?

### Card 4

#### Front

How could you prevent animals escaping from the white sheet?

### Card 5

#### Front

How could you collect animals from trees?