Anaesthetics and Antiseptics Flashcards

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What natural drugs were used prior to anaesthetics and why weren't they effective?
Alcohol, opium and mandrake. They made the patients very ill and difficult to produce.
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When and what was the first anaesthetic to be discovered?
1799 by Humphry Davy.
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Why wasn't nitrous oxide used as an anaesthetic?
Davy was ignored by surgeons at the time to use it as an anasethetic and was relegated to use as a fairground novelty. It was again ignored in a failed public demonstration in 1845.
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When and who discovered ether?
Crawford Long, 1842.
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What were the problems of ether?
Ether is an irritant and fairly explosive so it was very risky to use.
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When and who discovered chloroform?
James Simpson, 1847.
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How was chloroform used?
Widely used in operating theatres and to reduce pain during childbirth - but it sometimes affected the heart which caused deaths.
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What other substances were investigated other than nirtrous oxide, ether and chloroform?
Cocaine and novocaine.
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What was the "Black Period" of surgery? (1846-1870)
As the dangers of bleeding and infection had not been overcome, the attempts at more complicated surgery actually led to increased death rates.
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What opposition was there to anaesthetics?
Worried the surgeons were inexperienced with using anaesthetics. Church against chloroform use in childbirth. Suspicious of surgeons. Opposition in army "Much better to hear a fellow shouting with all his might than see him sink quietly to his grave"
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What were the benefits of anaestetics?
Surgeons able to perform more complicated surgery as they had more time. The patient was uncooporative so the surgeon could spend longer.
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What is the difference between antiseptic and aseptic surgery?
Antiseptic is designed to kill germs and aseptic is designed to prevent germs.
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What did Semmelweiss do?
Used chloride of lime solution as a hand wash for doctors to control the spread of pueperal fever but it was unpleasant to use.
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What did Joseph Lister do?
Used carbolic acid as an antiseptic in operating theatres. He later used it on instruments and bandages after hearing of the germ theory which further improved.
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What opposition was there to carbolic acid?
Unpleasant to use so doctors didn't use it. Opposed germ theory.
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What were the features of an Aseptic Operating Theatre?
Instruments carefully sterilised. Surgeons wore sterile clothing. Surgical gloves were invented by Halsted in 1889. Theatres were very clean and fed with sterile air. Special tents placed around operating table in high risk cases.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When and what was the first anaesthetic to be discovered?

Back

1799 by Humphry Davy.

Card 3

Front

Why wasn't nitrous oxide used as an anaesthetic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When and who discovered ether?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the problems of ether?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

em1020

Great, thanks

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