Surgery Flashcards

As opposed to hospitals, were was surgery often done in the 19th century?
In peoples homes
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Three main problems with surgery were B____ L___, I________ and P___
Blood Loss, Infection and Pain
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What did Humphrey Davy discover and when?
1799, Nitrous Oxide (laughing gas) could be used to make you less aware of pain
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What did William Morton discover and when?
1846, the gas Ether was a longer lasting anaesthetic than Nitrous Oxide
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What were some of the problems with Ether?
Vomiting, Irritated lungs which caused coughing and therefore moving, high flammable (candles were the main form of light), caused a deep sleep (which could last for days) and it was carried in large glass bottles which were difficult to carry
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Who discovered Chloroform and when?
James Simpson, 1847
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What did Ignaz Semmelwiss discover?
Deaath rate of women in childbirth was higher in hospital wards where medical students, who had come straight from dissections of bodies, had been involved.
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What did Semmelwiss do about his discovery?
He got the medical students to wash their hands in a chlorine solution which caused the death rate to drop dramatically.
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How did Simpson take Semmelwiss' ideas further?
He used them whilst teaching in universities in Edinburgh and London.
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What was sepsis?
An infection / decay that produced a strong smell of rotting flesh.
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Who discovered Carbolic acid and when?
Joseph Lister, 1864
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When was Carbolic acid first used?
1865, Lister tested carbolic acid on an eleven year old boy in hospital with a compound fracture in his leg which created an open wound likely to lead to infection.
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Was the first use of Carbolic acid successful?
Yes, the fracture and wound had both healed in six weeks.
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When did Lister become professor of surgery at Kings College hospital?
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Who introduced catgut and why was it useful?
Lister, and it was useful as it could be sterilised.
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What was used before catgut was introduced?
Silk, which was unhygienic.
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What did Robert Koch discover and when?
He discovered the bacterium which causes blood poisoning in 1878.
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What did Koch discover was more effect than Carbolic acid at killing microbes?
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In terms of surgery, what is shock?
When there isn't enough blood in the circulatory system to keep the body working properly.
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What blood was sued in the first blood transfusions?
Animal blood, most people died.
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Why was loss a bigger problem after antiseptics and anaesthetics?
Surgery seemed safer so more people were having it.
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What did Ambroise Pare do to control blood loss in the 16th century?
He develoepd metal clips to place on arteries during an operation. He also tried using silk thread to tie up blood vessels after amputation instead of using heat.
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What three main problems did James Blundell find in transfusions?
Clotting (this would block up the tubes), Availability (Clotting meant blood couldn't be stored) and Immune Response (Antibodies wouldn't recognise the donor blood and therefore attack it)
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Who discovered A, B and O blood types and when?
Karl Landsteiner, 1902
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Why were blood transfusions so difficult during World War One?
Clotting meant blood couldn't be stored and so both the recipient and the donor had to be there together at the same time.
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Who discovered that Sodium Citrate stops blood from clotting and when?
Richard Lewisohn, 1915
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Who discovered that blood with Sodium Citrate could be stored in refrigerated conditions?
Richard Weil
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Who found that adding citrate glucose solution too blood allowed it to be stored longer and when?
Francis Rous and James Turner, 1916
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Who developed a portable machine that could store blood?
Geoffrey Keynes
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When was the first blood depot established and what blood group was used?
1917 for the Battle of Cambrai using blood group O as it could safely be given to all patients.
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Which French surgeon worked on plastic surgery before the First World War?
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What did Harold Gilles ask for permission to do at the beginning of the First World War/
Set up a plastic surgery unit for the British Army
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Why was there a demand for prosthetic limbs at the time of the First World War?
Between 1914 and 1921, over 41,000 mean in the British armed forces had lost a limb.
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What's an example of a more complex operation chemistry played a role in?
Removing tumours and internal obstructions like hard 'stones' in the gall bladder
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Who discovered x-rays and when?
Wilhelm Roentgen, 1895
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Why did the use of x-rays spread quickly?
Roentgen didn't take out a patent
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When did the London Royal Hospital get it's first x-ray machine?
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What effect did x-rays play in removing shrapnel?
Surgeons didn't have to dig around in a wound, reducing problems of bleeding and infection.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Three main problems with surgery were B____ L___, I________ and P___


Blood Loss, Infection and Pain

Card 3


What did Humphrey Davy discover and when?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did William Morton discover and when?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What were some of the problems with Ether?


Preview of the front of card 5
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