Anaerobic respiration in mammals and yeast

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 12-06-16 17:30
What is anaerobic respiration?
The release of energy from substrates such as glucose in the absence of oxygen.
1 of 29
What happens if oxygen is absent?
The electron transport chain cannot function, so the link reaction and Krebs cycle also stop.
2 of 29
What is the only source of ATP left?
Only the anaerobic process of glycolysis.
3 of 29
What is neccessary for glucose to keep working?
The reduced NAD, generated during the oxidation of glucose has to be reoxidised.
4 of 29
What are the 2 pathways to reoxidise reduced NAD for eukaryotic cells?
Fungi such as yeast use ethanol fermentation and animals use lactate fermentation.
5 of 29
How is ATP produced?
2 molecules of ATP are made by substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis.
6 of 29
What are the products of glycolysis?
2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of reduced NAD and 2 molecules of pyruvate.
7 of 29
When does lactate fermentation occur?
Occurs in mammalian muscle tissue during vigorous activity such as when running to escape a predator when demand for ATP is high and there is an oxygen deficit.
8 of 29
What is the hydrogen acceptor in mammals?
Pyruvate
9 of 29
Is carbon dioxide produced in lactate fermentation?
No
10 of 29
Is ATP produced in lactate fermentation?
No
11 of 29
Is NAD reoxidised in lactate fermentation?
Yes
12 of 29
What are the end products of lactate fermentation?
Lactate
13 of 29
What enzymes are involved in lactate fermentation?
Lactate dehydrogenase.
14 of 29
Where is the lactate taken from and to?
From muscles to the liver.
15 of 29
What happens when more oxygen is available?
The lactate can be converted back to pyruvate that can enter the Krebs cycle via the link reaction or be recycled to glucose.
16 of 29
What does the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase do?
Catalyses the oxidation of reduced NAD and the reduction of pyruvate to lactate.
17 of 29
What causes muscle fatigue?
The reduction in pH that will reduce enzyme activity in the muscles.
18 of 29
In alcoholic fermentation what happens to each pyruvate molecule?
Each pyruvate loses a carbon dioxide, it is decarboxylated and becomes ethanal.
19 of 29
What is this reaction catalysed by?
The enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase which has a coenzyme bound to it.
20 of 29
What does ethanal do?
Ethanal accepts hydrogen atoms from reduced NAD which becomes reoxidised as ethanal is reduced to ethanol.
21 of 29
What catalyses the reduction of ethanal to ethanol?
Ethanol dehydrogenase.
22 of 29
What can the reoxidised NAD now do?
Can now accept more hydrogen atoms from glucose, during glycolysis.
23 of 29
What is the hydrogen acceptor in ethanol fermentation?
Ethanol
24 of 29
Is carbon dioxide product in ethanol fermentation?
Yes
25 of 29
Is ATP produced in alcoholic fermentation?
No
26 of 29
Is NAD reoxidised in alcoholic fermentation?
Yes
27 of 29
What are the end products of alcoholic fermentation?
Ethanol and carbon dioxide.
28 of 29
What enzymes are involved in ethanol fermentation?
Pyruvate decarboxylase and ethanol decarboxylase.
29 of 29

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens if oxygen is absent?

Back

The electron transport chain cannot function, so the link reaction and Krebs cycle also stop.

Card 3

Front

What is the only source of ATP left?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is neccessary for glucose to keep working?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 2 pathways to reoxidise reduced NAD for eukaryotic cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes resources »