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  • Created by: Esme.B
  • Created on: 06-12-17 14:21
Chemical equation for Aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6+6O2= 6H20+6CO2+32 ATP
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4 main stages of Aerobic respiration?
Glycolysis, link reaction, Krebs cycle , oxidative phosphorylation
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Happens in cytoplasm, doesn't need oxygen, (phosphorylation, splitting in 2, oxidation)
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Glycolysis- phosphorylation?
Glucose is phosphorylated by adding 2 phosphates from 2 molecules of ATP.= (creates) 1 molecule of Hexose bisphosphate + 2 molecules of ADP.
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Glycolysis- splitting into 2?
Hexose bisphosphate split into 2 molecules= triose phosphate
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Glycolysis- Oxidation?
1). Triose phosphate= oxidised (loses hydrogen)= 2 molecules of pyruvate. 2). NAD= collects H+= 2 reduced NAD. 3). 4 ATP produced = 2 ATP (net gain)
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Products of Glycolysis?
2x pyruvate , 2x reduced NAD, 2x ATP (Net gain)
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Where does the Link reaction take place?
Martix of Mitchondria
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The link reaction?
1) pyruvate is decarboxylated = 1 carbon atom removed from pyruvate (in form of CO2. 2) NAD reduced= collects H+ from pyruvate.changes pyruvate into acetate. 3) acetate combines with coenzyme A = CoA=acetyl coA. 4) no ATP produced in reaction.
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Products of Link Reaction?
2x reduced NAD, 2x CO2
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How many times goes the link reaction occur for 1 glucose molecule?
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Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
Matrix of the mitochondria
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First Stage of the Krebs cycle?
1). Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate, forming Citrate (citric acid)- catalysed by Citrate synthase. + Coenzyme A returns to link reaction to be used again
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Second stage of the Krebs cycle?
2). 6C citrate molecule, converted to 5C molecule. + Decarboxylation occurs + Dehydrogenation occurs + Hydrogen used to produce, reduced NAD
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Third stage of The Krebs cycle?
3). 5C molecule converted to 4C molecule + Decarboxylation and Dehydrogenation occur, producing 1 molecule= reduced FAD and 2 molecules= reduced NAD + Substrate- level phosphorylation occurs -Citrate converted into oxaloacetate
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Substrate-level phosphorylation?
ATP produced by direct transfer of phosphate group from intermediate compound to ADP
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Products of the Krebs cycle?
6x reduced NAD, 4x CO2, 2x reduced FAD, 2x ATP
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Oxidative phosphorylation ?
Process where the energy carried by electrons from reduced coenzymes (reduced NAD and FAD), is used to make ATP. + takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane
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Products of Oxidative Phosphorylation?
28x ATP, 6x H2O
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Where does Oxidative phosphorylation occur?
Inner mitochondria membrane.
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How many ATP can be made from one Glucose molecule?
32 ATP
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Anaerobic respiration?
Doesn't use O2 + Does involve glycolysis, doesn't involve Link reaction, Krebs cycle + Oxidative phosphorylation
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Two types of Anaerobic respiration?
Alcoholic fermentation + Lactate fermination- both start with Glycolysis (produces Pyruvate)
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Where does Lactate fermentation occur?
Mammals + produces Lactate
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Process of Lactate fermentation?
1). Reduced NAD(from glycolysis) transfers hydrogen to pyruvate, this forms Lactate + NAD. 2). NAD reused in glycolysis.
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The production of Lactate helps regenerate ?
NAD. -Needed for Glycolysis to take place. =meaning, Glycolysis still occur even when not much O2 present, this allows small amount of ATP to still be produced.
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Toleration of high levels of lactate?
Tolerate high levels for short period of time= short periods of hard exercise- can't get enough ATP from aerobic respiration.
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Is Lactate toxic?
Yes. =Lactate removed from cells into bloodstream. Liver takes up Lactate from bloodstream + converts back into glucose= Gluconeogenesis.
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Where does alcoholic fermentation occur?
Yeast cells + produces Ethanol
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Process of Alcoholic Fermentation?
1).CO2 removed from pyruvate, forms ethanal. 2). Reduced NAD(from glycolysis) transfers hydrogen to ethanal to form ethanol + NAD. 3).NAD reused in glycolysis.
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The production of alcoholic fermentation helps regenrate?
NAD- Glycolysis continue when not a lot of O2 present.
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Which releases less energy, Anaerobic or aerobic respiration?
Anaerobic respiration releases less energy than Aerobic respiration.
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Explain how the ATP yield from anaerobic respiration is lower than aerobic respiration?
Anaerobic respiration only includes one energy- releasing stage(glycolysis)=2 ATP per glucose molecule. +. Krebs cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation need O2 therefore cannot occur during anaerobic respiration.
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Definition of ' Respiratory substrate'?
Any biological molecule that can be broken down in respiration to release energy.
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List the 3 different respiratory substrates, starting with the one which produces the most energy.
Lipids (contain more hydrogen atoms per unit of mass), Proteins + carbohydrates
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Theory behind the 'average energy' of respiratory substrates?
Most ATP made in oxidative phosphorylation, Hydrogen atoms needed from reduced NAD + FAD= respiratory substances that contain more H+ atoms per unit= more ATP produced
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'Respiratory Quotient' ?
volume of Co2 produced when that substrate is respired, divided by volume of O2 consumed in set time.
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What's useful about the 'Respiratory Quotient' ?
States what kind of respiratory substrate and organism is respiring + what type of respiration it's using (aerobic/anaerobic).
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High 'Respiratory Quotient' ?
organism is short of oxygen + having to respire anaerobically as well as aerobically.
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Plants have low 'Respiratory Quotient' ?
Co2 released in respiration is not used for photosynthesis- therefore not measured.
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4 main stages of Aerobic respiration?


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Glycolysis- phosphorylation?


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Card 5


Glycolysis- splitting into 2?


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