Applied Science Medical Physics

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  • Created by: IAN
  • Created on: 17-03-17 12:41
How does light travel down an optic fibre?
By repeated reflection providing the angle of incidence is bigger than the critical angle.This is known as total internal reflection.
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What does Z stand for ?
Acoustic Impedience
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What is Ultrasound ?
A high frequency sound which is TOO high for humans to hear.
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What is the difference between therapy and diagnosis?
Theraphy is a treatment and diagnosis is finding out a problem.
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What is an isotope?
A nucleus the has the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons.
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What is meant by ionising radiation?
Radiation causes by ions by knocking electrons out of atoms.
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Name the three types of nuclear radiation
Alpha , Beta , Gamma
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What is alpha?
The nucleus of a helium atom or 2 protons and two neutrons joined together.
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Why does the ideal tracer only emit gamma radiation?
It is least ionising and least penetrating
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What can Xray's diagnose
Fractured, chipped or dislocated bones , Dental problems and other jaw abnormalities , Broken ribs or a punctured lung
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What are Xrays?
High frequency electromagnetic waves
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How are xrays produced?
They are produced by firing fast-moving electrons at a metal target.
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What is the purpose of the cathode?
Emits electrons
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What is the purpose of the rotating anode?
Produces x-rays / Attracts electrons
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What is the purpose of the evacuated glass tube?
Prevents electrons colliding with air particles
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what is the purpose of the Lead housing?
Prevent stray x-rays escaping
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What is attenuation ?
Decrease of strength with distance
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Advantages of CAT scans?
Can be used to image soft tissue e.g. brain Can show cross sections or 3D images. Often more quickly available than MRIs in UK Provide better clarity than conventional x-rays for internal organs, bone, soft tissue e.g. brain and blood vessels
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Disadvantages of CAT scans?
More ionising radiation May not distinguish scar tissue from active cancerous tissue Involves being confined in a small space – may be problematic for claustrophobic patients Much more expensive than conventional x-rays Requires cooperation or sedate
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Alpha Waves
8-12 Hertz
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When do alpha waves occur?
When Relaxed
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Beta Waves
12-30 Hertz
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When do beta waves occur?
Mental activity , being Alert , Active & Busy
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Delta
Up to 4 Hertz
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When do delta waves occur?
Deep sleep
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Theta
4-7 Hertz
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When do theta waves occur?
Drowsiness
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EEG uses
Diagnose epilepsy ,Diagnose head injuries,Check for problems such as dementia , Investigate brain tumours , Study sleep disorders
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What does ECG stand for?
Electrocardiogram
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How is Laser Therapy given?
Through a flexible endoscope
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Where is a flexible endoscope inserted?
mouth, nose, anus
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Where is the laser light aimed
Laser light is then precisely aimed to cut or destroy a tumour
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Use of lasers
Relieve bleeding or obstruction Shrink / destroy a tumour that is blocking a patient’s trachea (windpipe) or oesophagus , Remove tumours that are blocking the colon or stomach Laser therapy,
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Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy LITT
Light energy is converted to heat. When delivered to a tumour, this heat will damage or kill the cancer cells and shrink the tumour
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Uses of Lasers
Fixing a detached retina, Sealing nerve endings to reduce pain after surgery, Sealing wounds, Corneal surgery, Cosmetic surgery
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Photodynamic Surgery
Method for destroying cancer cells and Uses light sensitive drugs – only become active when exposed to light of the correct frequency
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How Photodynamic Surgery happens
When administered they are attracted to cancer cells and become concentrated in them.When the light is shone on that area, the drug becomes active and destroys the cells in which it is concentrated
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Advantages of Photodynamic Surgery
More precise than scalpels, so do less damage to normal tissue, Simplify many surgical procedures, Less pain bleeding, swelling, scarring Operations shorter, Takes less time to heal, Less likely to get infections, Increases range of treatable condit
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Disadvantages of Photodynamic Surgery
Surgeons must have specialised training, Strict safety precautions must be followed, It is expensive, The equipment is bulky, The effects may not last long, so treatments may have to be repeated, Cause burns – serious hazards are explosions and fire
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What is the Normal Blood Pressure at Birth?
80/50
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18 year old male Blood Pressure
120/80
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20 year old male Blood Pressure
125/80
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40 year old male
135/85
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Elderly man
160/85
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20 year old female
123/80
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40 year old female
133/85
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20 year old pregnant female
90/80
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MRI Advantages
Strong magnetic fields and weak radio wave not thought to be harmful, Can visualise soft tissue, especially around bones and joints, Can make 3D images
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MRI Disadvantages
Expensive , Needs special facilities to house equipment , Feel claustrophobic
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What is Thermography?
A non-invasive diagnostic technique that converts infrared radiation emitted from the skin surface into electrical impulses that are visualized in colour.
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Thermography Pro's
No risk ,Early detection of problems , Coverage of a whole area , Precise location of problem area – prepares for other precision techniques , No pain, pressure or touching by equipment.
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Thermography Con's
Cameras are expensive and easily damaged ,Image interpretation requires experienced professionals, Focusing difficulty with infra-red rays, Image quality lacks sharpness, resolution and detail
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Advantages of ***** thermometers compared to liquid-in-glass thermometers
Easier to use, Easier to read , More robust – not made of glass ,Quicker , No need to sterilise , Safer – not inside the body
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Disadvantages of ***** thermometers compared to liquid-in-glass thermometers
Less accurate,Have to judge the brightness , Does not measure core body temperature , Influenced by external temperature
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Card 3

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Card 4

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What is the difference between therapy and diagnosis?

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Card 5

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