Monitoring the Human Body

Anaerobic Respiration Word Equasion
glucose = lactic acid + ATP
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Aerobic Respiration Word Equasion
glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + ATP + water
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Burning Word Equasion
fossil fuel + oxygen = carbon dioxide + heat + light
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Where do biochemical changes occur during anaerobic respiration?
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Where do biochemical changes occur during aerobic respiration?
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Examples of where ATP is used for life
muscle contraction, swimming of sperm, nerve impulse transmission, seperation of chromosomes during nuclear division, active transport, uptake and loss of ions and other particles.
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The Breakdown of ATP
ATP (energy for chamicalo change) into ADP into AMP (messanger molecule).
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The Production of ATP
a hormone triggers the production of cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP activates enzymes associated with biochemical pathways associated with said hormone. As a result hormonally controlled changes happen in the body.
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What Happens During Anerobic Respiration? (Changes in the body)
Heart and ventilation rate increase to meet the demand of oxygen. Muscles generate heat. Acidity and temperature in the muscles increase to encourage oxygen release from oxyhaemoglobin.
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Oxygen Debt
oxygen is needed to oxidse lactic acid formed during exercise.
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Monitoring Activity (list all)
breathing rate, heart rate, blood oxygen consentration, blood lactic acid consentration
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The Structure of the Heart
Four muscular chambers, two atria and two ventricles. Blood passes from the right atrium the the right ventricle (for both sides). The artium and ventricles are seperated by a atrioventricular valve.
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What is the Pulmonary Circuit Powered by?
the cardiac muscle
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Name of the Valves Separating the Atria and the Ventricles
atrioventricular valves
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Name of the Valve on the Right Side of the Heart
tricuspid valve
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Name of the Valve on the Left Side of the Heart
bicuspid valve
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Ventricular contraction moves blood through the _________ valves of the pulmonary artery and aorta.
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Structure of Arteries (from the outside in)
collagen fibres, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, lumen and endothelium
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Structure of Vein (from the outside in)
collagen fibres, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, lumen and endothelium
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Structure of Capillaries (from the outside in)
lumen and endothemium
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Features of Arteries
Surrounded by tissues and organs to confine them and prevent them from being over-inflated. Have thick muscular walls, only carry oxygenated blood. Blood is at a high pressure.
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Features of Veins
Usually carries deoxygenated blood, some contain valves to prevent back-flow. Blood is under very low pressure.
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Features of Capillaries
Small, tubular structures that are one cell thick, with space between the cells making them 'leaky'. Where solutes 'get on' and 'get off' the transport system. They are found in organs and tissues, and are under pressure.
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The Cardiac Cycle
SAN causes the atria to contract. The wave f excitement passes to the ventricles after a 0.1 sec. delay. It passes to the purkinje fibres and travels to the heart's apex causing the ventricles to contract from the apex upwards.
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What can Cause the Rhythm of the Heart to Change
physical activity, being scared/ startled, nervousness or hormones etc.
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Cardiac Output Equasion
cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume (volume per unit time)
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Nerves that Send Impulses to the Heart
parasympathetic nerve and the sympathetic nerve
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Parasympathetic Nerve
delivers messages to the SAN, slows down the heart
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Sympathetic Nerve
delvers messages to many areas of the heart walls, speeds up the heart
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hormone released by the adrenal gland increasing heart rate
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Where is the Cardiovascular Center in the Brain
Mudella Oblongarta
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monitor concentrations of oxygen and carbon in the blood.
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registers changes in the walls of vessels due to changes in pressure
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Value that Blood Pressure is Expressed in
mmHg or kPa
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What Happens when Atria and Ventricles Contract?
volume decreases and pressure increases
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Two regions of the Cardiovascular centre
cardio-acceleratory and cardio-inhibitory centre
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What is the Cardiocentre Involved in?
regulating heart activity and bloody pressure
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(a)What does the Cardiocentre do?
It maintains or increases the rate of flow within the circulatory system in responce to physical demand activity.
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(b)How does it do this?
by increasing the rate and strength of the heart beat (in particular ventricular constricltion
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when hot the capillaries expand and rise to the surface of the skin allowing heat to excape throuth the skin
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capillaries decrease in volume (when cold) as to retain heat
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Structure of the ventilation System
Air enters through the mouth and nose, through the trachea where it divides to from two bronchi (left and right). Each bronchus divides into smaller branches called bronchioles which narrow into alvioli.
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Function of Cartilage in the Trachea
to prevent collapse but retain flexability
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Purpose of Goblet Cells
Found in the airways of the ventilation system. Secrete mucus which is moved up and out by rhythmic movemnets of the cilia. which is brough to the back of the trout to be swallowed.
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What Happens to the Chest During Inhalation
intercostal muscles contract, ribs move up and out, volume of the chest cavity increases and the diaphragm contracts and moves down
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What Happens to the Chest During Exhalation
intercostal muscles relax, ribs move down and in, volume of the chest cavity decreases, diaphragm relaxes and bulges upwards
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Volume and Air Pressure of the Thorax During Inhalation
volume increases, air pressure decreases
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Volume and Air Pressure of the Thorax During exhalation
volume decreases, air pressure increases
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Features of the Lung System
very large surface area, alveolar wall and capillary wall are thin, permiable to gasses, moist so gasses can dissolve across membranes, around 80% of alveolar sufaces are incontact with a capillary, diffusion gradients, close transport system
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Transport of Oxygen
haemoglobin combines with 4 molecules of oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin (a reversable reaction)
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Transport of Nutrients
Blood glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and gycerol are added to the bloodstream by diffusion (facilitated or active transport) from the small intestine after a meal. Nutrients travel to their point of use in the blood plasma.
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Transport of Carbon Dioxide
transported in three different ways: 5% dissolves into plasma, 10% leaves the plasmato combine with haemoglobin to form carbaminohaemoglobin, 85% diffuses into red blood cells whereto combines with water to form carbonic acid.
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Blood Glucose During: Fasting (a) and (b) Glucose in Urine
(a) 3.5-7.5mmol dm^3 (b) 9.0 mmoldm^3
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Breathing: (a) Typical Rate, (b) Tidal Volume, (c) Vital Capasity (male and female) and (d) Peak Flow
(a) 15-18 per minute, (b) 0.4-0.5 dm^3, (c) 6.0 dm^3 (male) 4.35dm^3 (female), (d) 400-600 dm^3 min^-3
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Blood Pressure: (a) Typical male 18, (b) male 20, (c) female 20, (d) male 40, (e) female 40
(a) 120/80 mmHg (b) 125/80 mmHg, (c) 123/80 mmHg, (d) 135/85 mmHg (e) 133/85 mmHg
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60-80 beats per minute
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Body Temperature: (a) Normal, Death, (b) Hypothermia, (c) Fever, (d) Hyperthermia, (e) Hypothermia and (f) high temperatures that would lead to death in degrees
(a) 36.5 -37.2, (b) below 25, (c) 32, (d) 32, (e) above 38, (f) above 43
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(blood-haemoglobin consentration is lower then normal) due to: too few red blood cells bring produced, some erd blood cells are being destroyed, or by blood loss (bleeding)
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leucocyte cell count above 4-11 x 10^9/dm^3
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Biabetics (blood-sugar levels)
Inject insulin to control blood-gluclose consentrations Type one: genetic, pancreas is unable to produce insulin. Type Two: non-insulin dependant, impared secreation of insulin (lifestyle)
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Glucagon and Insulin (Diabetes)
both secreted by the pancreas in responce to glucose levels in the blood
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Monitoring Diabetes
using clinisticks or sugar metering device
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Athsma (a. breathing tests, b. causes and c. management)
(a) peak flow test used to record brething test data (b) the constriction of the airways, causing a shortness of breath (c) drugs and therapy
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Situations when Blood Tests and Needed
accidents (vehicle), health/ life insurance, pre-employment screening, evidence of legality, drug rehibilitation programmes, sports related drug abuse
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Recreational Drugs: Depressants
alcohol, barbiturates (downers), cannabis
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Recreational Drugs: Stimulant
amphetamines, amyl nitrate, cocaine, khat
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Recreational Drugs: Hallucinogenics
ecstasy, THC
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Recreational Drugs: Anaesthetic
GHB, ketamine
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Recreational Drugs: Analgesic
heroin, methadone
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Performance Enhancing Drugs: Anabolic Steroid
(substance related to testosterone) nandrololne, testosterone, terahydrogesterone (THG, The Clear), trenbolone
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Performance Enhancing Drugs: Hormones
ethropoietin (EPO), stimulated red blood cell production
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Performance Enhancing Drugs: Stimulant
modafinil, promotes wakefulness
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Blood Sample Procedure
tourniquet, skin is cleaned, hypodermic needle is inserted, blood is withdrawn (syringe), sealed in a bottle, pressure applied (wound), adhesive tape, waste container, lab analysis
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Types of Blood Sampling
gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, UV absorption, mass spectrometry
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ELIZA Blood Test
specific antibodies bind to wells- wells are washed- agent is added- walls are washed- serum is added- antibody- enzyme is added- binds to antigen- wells are washed- substrate is added- reaction occurs- observable change occurs
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Ways Enzymes are Labelled
enzyme, radioactive isotope, fluorescent/ chemi-fluorescent compound
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Two Types of Sphygmomanometer
manual and digital
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Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Reading
age, diurnal variation, medication and stress
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graphical representation of an individuals heartbeat
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abnormally elevated heart rate, above 100 beats per minute in adults
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abnormally low heart rate, below 60 beats per minutes in adults
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Ventricular Fibrillation
when ventricular contractions are irregular and uncoordinated
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inconsistent heart rate common in young people
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(Spirometer) Tidal Volume
volume of air that is ventilated during inspiratory or expiritory phase in the breathing cycle
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(Spirometer) Inspiratory Reserve Volume
volume of the extra air that can be inspired at the end of tidal inspiration
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(Spirometer) Expiratory Reserve Volume
volume of the extra air that can be exspired at the end of tidal inspiration
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(Spirometer) Inspiratory Capacity
max volume of air that can be inspired following tidal expiration
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(Spirometer) Vital Capacity
max volume of air that can be expired following max inspiration
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(Spirometer) Residual Volume
volume of gas left in the lungs after maximum expiration
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Peak Flow Meter
Used at home by patients to monitor their disease and effectiveness of medication. Procedure: clean mouthpeice, deepest possible breath, blow out hard as possible, lips firmly sealed (no air escapes), process repeated 3 times, highest value recorded
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heart rate and blood pressure falls
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Core Temperature
the temp. of organs within the skull thoracic and abdominal cavities
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Hypothermia in the Elderly
temperature-control processes deteriorate as you get older, vascodilation and constriction are not as effective, less body fat = more heat lost, reduced mobility and lowered metabolic rate means that less heat is generated
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Heat Exhaustion
Can result from any activity that casuse extreme sweating, the body loses water, sodium and chloride ions. If they are not replaced this can lead to vomiting, nausea, headaches and tachycardia (common in long-distance runners).
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Heat Stroke
When core temperature is above 40 degrees tissue damage is caused, (irriversable) and has a high fatality rate. Young and elderly most at risk.
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Where to Take a Pulse
can be taken at the: temporal, carotid, apical, brachial, radial, ulnar and femoral pulse points
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How to Take A Pulse
the tips of the first two fingers (index and middle) locate the artery wall through the skin, then a light pressure is applied, beats are counted for 30 seconds then timesed by two to get the beats per minute
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Types of Sphygmomanometers
manual or electronic (manual: mercury and aneroid)
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Types of Thermometer
glass clinical, murcury and electronic, disposable temperature-sensitive plastic *****, tympanic infared, digial
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Advantages and Disadvantages: X-Rays
A: Relatively cheap and easy good bone resolution, non-radiologists can interpret. D: poor soft tissure resoltion, contrast media = unpleasant/ hazardous, ionising radiation, high-voltage supply is hazardous
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Advantages and Disadvantages: CT / CAT
A: More available in then MRI, more detailed info. D: higher radiation doses, very expensive, required cooperative/ sedated patient
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Advantages and Disadvantages: MRI
A: No ionising radiation, no known harmful effects, non-invasive, better soft tissue contrast, 3D data. D: Very high cost, can't scan people with metal implants, claustrophobic/ obese patients
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Advantages and Disadvantages: Ultrasound
A: No ionising radiation, no known harmful effects, good soft tissure resolution, non-invasive, relatively cheap. D: All untracound reflected at the air/tissue interference, nothing can be seen beyond bone
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glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + ATP + water


Aerobic Respiration Word Equasion

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fossil fuel + oxygen = carbon dioxide + heat + light


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