alcohols

name the two ways to produce alcohols
hydration of ethene , fermentation of glucose
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name 2 advantages of using hydration to produce alcohol ?
produces almost 100% percentage yield, all atoms in reactants are used and present in product(no waste)
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name 2 disadvantages of using hydration to produce alcohol ?
alot of energy needed to maintain high temperatures and pressures,ethene from crude oil is needed which is a non renewable source
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name an advantage of using fermentation to produce alcohols
is fairly cheap as no extra energy required to maintain high temperatures and pressures
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name two disadvantages of using fermentation to produce alcohols
only produces a 15% yield , losses CO2 in reaction as a waste product
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name two uses of ethanol
as a fuel and in methylated spirits
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why do alcohols have a relatively high boiling point ?
because of the presence of strong hydrogen bonds between alcohol molecules
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define volatility
the ease that a liquid turns into a gas. volatility increases as boiling point decreases
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why are alcohols soluble in water ?
because hydrogen bonds form between the OH group of the alcohol and water molecules
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why does solubility decrease as an alcohols chain length increases
a larger part of the alcohol molecule is made up of a non-polar hydrocarbon chain which does not form hydrogen bonds with water molecules
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what makes a primary alcohol ?
when the OH functional group is at the end of a carbon chain
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what makes a secondary alcohol ?
when the OH functional group is in the middle of a carbon chain
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what makes a tertiary alcohol?
when the OH functional group is opposite a side chain coming off of the longest carbon chain
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what 2 products are formed when alcohols are burnt completely ?
CO2 + H2O
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what makes a suitable oxidising agent for an alcohol ?
a solution containing acidified dichromate ions
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what is an oxidising mixture for alcohols made up of ?
potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid
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during the oxidation of alcohols what colour is the acidified potassium dichromate ( oxidising agent)
changes from an initial orange to green
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when a primary alcohol is oxidised what is produced ?
if heated gently it produces a aldehyde and water , if strongly heated it produces a carboxylic acid
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when a secondary alcohol is oxidised what is produced ?
ketones which cannot be oxidised further and water
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when a tertiary alcohol is oxidised what is produced ?
nothing as tertiary alcohols are resistant to oxidation.
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define esterification
the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
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name conditions which are needed for an ester to be produced
alcohol must be warmed with a carboxylic acid and an acid catalyst must be present
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what is a common acid catalyst used in esterification ?
concentrated sulfuric acid
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where does the product water come from in the process of esterification ?
the OH of the carboxylic acid and the H of the OH functional group of an alcohol
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what are esters used for ?
adhesives and solvents in the chemical industry to produce food flavourings and perfumes
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define dehydration
an elimination reaction in which water if removed from the saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
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when an alcohol is dehydrated what products are produced?
an alkene
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

name 2 advantages of using hydration to produce alcohol ?

Back

produces almost 100% percentage yield, all atoms in reactants are used and present in product(no waste)

Card 3

Front

name 2 disadvantages of using hydration to produce alcohol ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

name an advantage of using fermentation to produce alcohols

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

name two disadvantages of using fermentation to produce alcohols

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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