Additional Chemistry

WHAT IS A COVALENT BOND?
It is where atoms share pairs of electrons in order to achieve the stable electronic structure of a noble gas.
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WHAT IS METALLIC BONDING?
A giant structure of metal atoms in a regular structure. The electron in the highest energy shell becomes delocalised but there is still a strong electrostatic force of attraction between the ion and electron.
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HOW DOES A GIANT IONIC LATTICE FORM?
Strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions in all directions hold the ions together.
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DO IONIC COMPOUNDS CONDUCT HEAT ELECTRICITY?
They don't when they are solid but do when they are melted or dissolved in water.
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WHAT ARE ALLOYS AND WHY ARE THEY USED?
They are a mixture of a metal with more elements. As they have different sized atoms it makes it harder for layers to slide over one another meaning they are harder than pure metals.
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HOW ARE MOLES CALCULATED?
Mass divided by RAM/RFM
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HOW CAN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY BE USED TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENT ELEMENTS?
The retention time shows how quick it traveled and the greatest peak has the greatest amount present.
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IDENTIFY THREE WAYS THE RATE OF REACTION CAN BE INCREASED
Increase the temperature, pressure (only in fluids), concentration, surface area and add a catalyst
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WHAT IS AN EXOTHERMIC REACTION? NAME TWO EXAMPLES
It is a reaction that transfers energy to its surroundings e.g. combustion and neutralisation reactions
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WHAT IS AN ENDOTHERMIC REACTION? NAME TWO EXAMPLES
It is a reaction that takes energy in from its surroundings e.g. hand warmers and self-heating coffee cans
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WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A BASE AND AN ALKALI?
An alkali is a base dissolved in water
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WHAT IS PRODUCED WHEN AN ACID REACTS WITH A METAL?
A salt and hydrogen
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IN ELECTROLYSIS WHAT HAPPENS AT THE POSITIVE ELECTRODE?
Negative ions move to the positive electrode and lose electrons which is known as oxidation
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WHAT IS ELECTROPLATING AND WHY IS IT USED?
It is where electrolysis is used to coat objects with a think layer of metal e.g. to make it look attractive or to protect an object from corrosion
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HOW IS ALUMINIUM EXTRACTED FROM BAUXITE ORE?
Dissolve aluminium oxide in molten cryolite (lowers the melting point) and pass a current through. Aluminium ions move to negative electrode and gain electrons to make liquid aluminium metal.
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DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURE OF GRAPHITE
Each atom bonds with 3 other carbon atoms making a layer. There are only weak intermolecular forces between the layers making them soft and slippery. Each carbon atom has a delocalised electron (other three are involved in covalent bonding)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

WHAT IS METALLIC BONDING?

Back

A giant structure of metal atoms in a regular structure. The electron in the highest energy shell becomes delocalised but there is still a strong electrostatic force of attraction between the ion and electron.

Card 3

Front

HOW DOES A GIANT IONIC LATTICE FORM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

DO IONIC COMPOUNDS CONDUCT HEAT ELECTRICITY?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

WHAT ARE ALLOYS AND WHY ARE THEY USED?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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