Addition Flashcards

  • Created by: Kim_Hurn
  • Created on: 21-05-18 12:13
What is Addiction?
A disorder in which an individual takes a substance or engages in a behaviour that eventually becomes compulsive.
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What is Physical Dependence?
State of the body due to habitual drug use, results in withdrawal syndrome when the drug is reduced / stopped.
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What is Psychological Dependence?
Compulsion to continue taking a drug as it is rewarding.
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What is Tolerance?
Reduction in response to the drug as the individual needs to more to achieve the same effect.
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What is Behaviour Tolerance?
Adjusting behaviour from learning through experience.
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What is Cross Tolerance?
Tolerating one drug can reduce sensitivity to another type.
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What are Withdrawal Symptoms?
Set of symptoms that develop when the addicted person abstains from or reduces their drug use.
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What are the Risk Factors for developing an addiction?
Genetic Vulnerability, Genetic Mechanisms, Stress, Personality, Family Influence and Peers.
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How is Genetic Vulnerability a Risk Factor?
Any inherited predisposition will increase the risk of a disorder / condition in an individual.
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How is Genetic Mechanisms a Risk Factor?
Dopamine communicates in the brain depending on the presence of receptors for dopamine molecules. The D2 receptors are involved in addiction. Some are able to metabolise certain substances which is likened to addiction.
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How is Stress a Risk Factor?
A state of arousal that arises when we believe we do not have the ability to cope with a perceived threat.
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What did Epstein find linked to Stress?
Found children will have an addiction problem if they have a vulnerability and a later successful situation.
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How is Family Influences a Risk Factor?
Parental approval and the extent to which their parents have positive attitudes towards certain drugs.
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What did Livingston find linked to Family Influences?
Those allowed by parents to drink alcohol at home during their final year were more likely to drink excessively the following year of college.
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How is Personality a Risk Factor?
Individuals personality traits can show addiction through related behaviours. `
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What did Ivanov find linked to Personality?
Concluded a link between impulsivity and addiction.
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How are Peers a Risk Factor?
Peers become more influential in adolescence.
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What did Mary O' Connell suggest linked to Peers?
Three major elements to peer influences. 1) Attitudes and norms are influenced. 2) Experience peers providing the opportunity. 3) Overestimate how much they have to keep up with fellow peers / norm.
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What is the Desensitisation Hypothesis?
Dani and Heinemann focused on brain neurochemistry, where neutrons produce neurotransmitters aceltylchloline. Ach neurons are distributed throughout the NS and have effects on the physiological arousal / reward mechanisms.
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What are Nucleus Accumbens?
Part of the mesolimbic system and is the reward and pleasure centre of the brain. Releases dopamine which has effects of euphoria, reduction of anxiety and increased alertness.
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Explain the process of Desensitisation.
When enough ACh molecules bind with receptors, an electrical impulse goes from one neuron to another. nAChR binds with both ACh and nicotine, when the nicotine modules bind with nicotine receptors it becomes stimulated.
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Explain the process of Desensitisation (continued)
Immediately after, the nicotinic receptors shut down and temporality can't respond to neurotransmitters and the number of active receptors down regulate leading to desensitisation of neutrons.
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What happens when smokers go without nicotine for prolonged periods of time?
The drug is metabolised and disappears allowing ACh receptors to become functional and neutrons sensitised again.
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What happens during Classical Conditioning with Nicotine?
The pleasurable effect is a primary reinforcer and is rewarding because of the dopamine reward system. Any other stimuli present becomes associated with this effect and become secondary reinforcers,
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What happens during Operant Conditioning with Nicotine?
If rewarding the behaviour is likely to be repeated. As nicotine stimulates the release of dopamine feeling euphoria will become rewarding. And withdrawal symptoms become unpleasant, which they'll seek to reduce by smoking again.
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What is Vicarious Reinforcement in terms of Gambling?
Experience of seeing others being rewarded and getting pleasure and financial returns. Enough to trigger a desire for the same reinforcement in someone who has not gambled before.
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What is Direct / Negative Reinforcement in terms of Gambling?
Winning is a reinforced of continued betting or wagering and the buzz that accompanies, It can also be an escape by offering distraction from aversive stimuli.
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What is Partial Reinforcement in terms of Gambling?
Where only some bets are rewarded so theres unpredictability about which gambles will pay off.
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What is Variable Reinforcement in terms of Gambling?
An always changing proportion of wagers, which may be possible to gamble with no payout at all but still places bets for a long time even when they're not being reinforced.
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What is Cue Reactivity?
The individual will encounter secondary reinforcers which are associated with the arousal experienced. They are difficult to avoid and offer low level reminders of the pleasure and make relapse predictable for many.
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What is Expectancy Theory?
Gamblers have expectations about the future benefits and costs of their behaviour, if they expect the benefits to outweigh the costs then addiction is more likely.
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What is Cognitive Biases?
Common beliefs that addicts have that are cognitive biases and the thinking, attention and memory processes linked to those beliefs.
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What is meant by Self Efficacy?
Expectations that we have the ability to behave in a way that achieves a desired outcome.
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What are Aversives?
Produce unpleasant consequences.
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What are Agonists?
Drug substitutes that stabilise the addict and controls withdrawal symptoms allowing gradual reduction.
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What are Antagonists?
Bind to receptors sites and block them, dependence doesn't have its usual effects.
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What does NRT use in Drug Therapy?
Gum, inhalers, patches etc.
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What does NRT do?
Deliver psychoactive substance in tobacco smoke. Provides the user with clean, controlled dosages of nicotine. Operates neurochemically by binding with nicotinic acetlycholine receptors in the mesolimbic pathway of the brain, stimulating dopamine.
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What does using NRT mean?
The amount of nicotine can be reduced overtime by using smaller and smaller patches.
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What is the Drug Therapy for Gambling?
Opioid Antagonists which reduce the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens by enhancing the release of other neurotransmitters GABA.
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What is the outcome of using Opioid Antagonists?
Dampens down cravings associated with gambling addiction.
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How is Aversion Therapy used for Gambling Addiction?
Gamblers think of phrases that relate to their behaviour and writes them down on cards, they'll read out each card and when they get a gambling related phrase will receive an electric shock.
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How is Aversion Therapy used for Alcohol Addiction?
Given an aversive that will cause vomiting, and an alcoholic drink. After 5-10 minutes they would experience nausea and vomit. The fear of experiencing the symptoms may prevent the client drinking alcohol.
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What is Covert Sensitisation?
Occurs in vitro and the individual is instructed to imagine how it would feel.
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How is Covert Sensitisation used for Nicotine Addiction?
Encouraged to relax and imagine themselves smoking, followed by unpleasant consequences. More vivd the better. Therapist goes into graphic detail and makes them imagine being forced to smoke a cigarette in faeces.
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What is Functional Analysis?
Identifying high risk situations and reflect on what the client is thinking before, during and after the situation.
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What are the three elements of Skills Training?
Cognitive Reconstructing, Specific Skills and Social Skills.
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What is Cognitive Reconstructing?
Tackling biases that operate below the clients level of awareness, addressing faulty beliefs.
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What is Specific Skills?
Focuses on the wider aspects that are related to their addiction and may reveal the clients lack of skills to allow them to cope.
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What is Social Skills?
Developing skills allowing them to cope, helping them learn how to refuse with minimum fuss and embarrassment.
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What does the Planned Behaviour Therapy attempt to do?
How we change behaviours where we exercise self control, that is deliberate behaviours.
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What are the 3 stages of planned behaviour?
Personal Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioural Control.
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What are Personal Attitudes?
Whether their opinion of the addiction is favourable or unfavourable and have to take into account the outcomes associated and weighing up positives / negatives.
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What is Subjective Norms?
Whether people who matter most approve or disapprove their behaviour, beliefs are based on what people consider 'normal'.
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What is Perceived Behavioural Control?
How much control we have over our behaviour and what our perception of internal / external resources is, influencing our intentions to behave certain ways.
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What are the Six Stages of Prochaska's Model?
Pre contemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance and Termination.
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What is Pre Contemplation?
Denial, unaware of behaviour and resistance. May feel hopeless.
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What is Contemplation?
Aware of the problem, may have an idea of how to change and not quite ready.
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What is Preparation?
Detailed plan established, announced intention to change, set to take action.
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What is Action?
Visible action, overt behaviour change and shift in thinking and self image.
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What is Maintenance?
Ongoing effort and commitment, consolidated change into habit.
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What is Termination?
Desired change complete. New behaviour has become normal.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is Physical Dependence?


State of the body due to habitual drug use, results in withdrawal syndrome when the drug is reduced / stopped.

Card 3


What is Psychological Dependence?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Tolerance?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is Behaviour Tolerance?


Preview of the front of card 5
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