Adaptations to different diets

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 03-06-16 10:50
How do mammals ingest their food?
They retain food in the mouth whilst they cut and chew it. They have a palate separating the nasal and mouth cavities, holding food in the mouth to chew whilst breathing.
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What are some factors or a carnivore?
It eats only animals. Its diet is mostly protein, its small intestine is short in relation to its body length, reflecting the ease with which protein is digested. Its large intestine is straight with smooth lining.
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What are some factors of a herbivore?
It eats on plant material. Its small intestine is long in relation to its body length as plant material isn't readily digested, a long gut allows enough time for digestion and absorption of nutrients. Its large intestine is pouched and long.
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What are some factors of an omnivore?
It eats both animal and plant material. Its gut is intermediate in length. Its large intestine is pouched and long.
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What are the four types of teeth humans have?
Incisors, canines, premolars and molars.
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Why are the teeth of herbivores modified?
They eat plant and plant cell walls are tough due to cellulose, lignin and maybe silica. The cells need to be thoroughly ground up before entering the stomach.
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Where are the incisors on a herbivore?
On the lower jow, the canine teeth are indistinguishable from them in shape and size.
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How does a herbivore eat grass?
It wraps its tongue around the grass, pulling it tight across the leathery dental pad on its upper jaw, then the lower incisors and canines slice through it.
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What does the diastema do?
It's a gap, it separates the front teeth from the side teeth, or premolars. The tongue and cheeks operate in the gap, moving grass to the large grinding surfaces of the molars.
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How do the molars work?
They interlock. Lower jaw moves from side to side, producing circular grinding action in a horizontal plane. They become worn, exposing sharp-edged enamel ridges which increase efficiency of grinding.
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What do the teeth of herbivores have?
Open, unrestricted roots so they can continue to grow throughout the animals life, replacing material worn down by chewing.
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Why doesn't a herbivore need strong muscles?
It doesn't need strong muscles attached to its jaw as food isn't likely to escape. It's skull is smooth, reflecting the absence of sites for strong muscle to attach.
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What are carnivores teeth adapted for?
Catching and killing prey, cutting or crushing bones and tearing meat.
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What do the teeth or carnivores do?
Sharp incisors grip and tear muscles from bone. Canine teeth are large, curved and pointed for piercing and seizing prey, tearing muscle and killing. Premolars and molars have cusps, sharp points that cut and crush. They have a specialised pair of
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cheek teeth, carnassials which shear the muscle off the bone. Lower jaw moves vertically so they can open their jaws more widely. Jaw muscles are well developed and powerful, enabling it to grip prey firmly and crush bone. Protrusions on skull where
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muscles insert into the bone.
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What is the definition of a ruminant?
A ruminant is a cud-chewing herbivore that has mutualistic microtubes in its rumen.
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What is the definition of mutualism?
Mutualism is a close association of organisms from more than one species providing benefit to both.
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Why do ruminants rely on mutualistic microbes?
Much of their food is cellulose, they can't digest the beta glycosidic bonds in it. Bacteria, fungi and protocista which live in a 150dm^3 chamber, the rumber, secrete the enzymes to digest it instead.
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How does cellulose digestion take place?
Grass is cut, mixed with salivia forming cud, swallowed downt he oesophagus to rumen. Rumen mixes food with microbes. Fermented grass passes to reticulum, re-formed into cud, regurgitated into mouth for more chewing. Cud may be swallowed and
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regurgitated several times. Cud passes into omasum where water and organic acids made from fermented glucose are absorbed into blood. Abomasum is the 'true' stomach were proteins digested by pepsin at pH2. Digested food passes to the small intestine
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, where products of digestion are absorbed into blood. Functions of large intestine are comparbable with that of a human.
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What do parasites do?
Live on or in an organism of another species, the host, and obtain nourishment at the host's expense, causing some degree of harm and often death.
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What are some features of the tapeworm?
It's ribbon-like, shape allows space for host's food to move past. It's up to 10m long. Anterior end, scolex, made of muscle carrying suckers and hooks, attaching to duodenum wall. Its body is a series of sections called proglottids. It has 2 hosts,
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primary host, human, secondary host, pig.
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How are pigs and humans infected with tapeworm?
Pig becomes infected when foods contaminated with human faeces. Humans infected by eating undercooked, infected pork.
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What are the hostile conditions of the gut that the tapeworm survives in?
It lives rurounded by digestive juices and mucus, peristalsis produces constant motion, experiences pH changes in passage to duodenum, exposed to host's immune system, if hosts dies so does parasite.
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How does the tapeworm survive the hostile environmnet?
Penetrate the host, attach to the host, protect itself against hosts immune responses, develop organs essential for survive, produce many eggs, have an immtermediate host, have resistance stages whilst away from host.
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What structural modifications do tapeworms have?
Suckers and a double row of curved hooks attaching to duodenum wall, a thick body covering the cuticle protecting it from hosts immune responses, ability to make enzyme inhibitors, no digestive system but large surface area to volume ratio so
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digested foods absorbed over whole surface, stable environment, they're hermaphrodites and each proglottid contains male and female reproductive organs, eggs have resistant shells and survive until eaten.
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What are lice?
Pediculus - an ectoparasite. Wingless insects, they can't fly and legs are poorly adapted to jumping/walking. If removed from the human they live on they die.
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What are the stages of a louse life cycle?
Nits are empty eggs seen on hair or clothing. After 1-2 weeks egg hatches to nymph, like an adult but smaller, they become an adult after 10 days. Nymphs feed on blood.
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