Adaptation & Diversity

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  • Created by: ShanayHS
  • Created on: 09-05-18 11:36
Explain the term phylogeny
Looking at the evolutionary development of an organism
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Explain the term Homoplasy
characteristics shared by a set of species but not present in their common ancestor
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Explain the term Homology
characteristic shared by a set of species which are also present in a common ancestor
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Describe the contributions made by Linnaeus
1. Organising species in according to their characteristics 2. Developed binomial nomenclature
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Describe the contributions made by Cuvier
1. The concept of extinction 2. The concept of catastrophe causing extinction
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Describe the contributions made by Lyell
1. Contributed to age of life and organisms in relation the the age of the earth
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Describe the contributions made by Lamarck
1. '' Use it or Lose it'' theory
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Describe the contributions made by Malthus
1. Population will outgrow resources
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Describe the contributions made by Wallace
1. Thought of the concept of evolution before darwinism
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Why was Lamarck's theory rejected
1. Evolution of characteristics too fast 2. Acquired characteristics do not have a genetic basis
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What is '' Descent with modification ''
1. Passing genes onto offspring
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Define the term '' body cavity ''
Any fluid-filled space within multi-cellular organisms with the exclusion any vessels.
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Explain the term '' synapomorphy ''
A characteristic processed by two or more organisms, inherited exclusively from a common ancestor.
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List Darwins four observations.
1. Species have different characteristics 2. Population may outgrow resources 3. Traits can be inherited 4. Due to lack of resources, some organisms will not survive
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List Darwins two inferences
1. '' survival of the fittest'' 2. '' survival of the fittest '' leads to rise in favorable traits
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Compare and contrasts the Porifera, Cnidaria and Flatworm
1. All AQUATIC 2. P +F have no mouths 3. C + F are mobile
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Name three familiar forms of the Mollusca
Snail ( gastropoda ), clam ( Bilvavia ) and octopus ( cephalopoda )
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Describe three features of the gastropoda
Use foot for gliding movement, have large brains and they have shells
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Describe three features of the Bilvavia
They are filter feeders, burrow in mud/sand and have shells with a dorsal hinge
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Name two familiar forms of the Annelida
earthworms ( errantia ) and leeches
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Describe two features of the errantia
1. good eyes 2. mobile due to ''legs''
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Describe one feature of the leech
They are parasitic
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Name two features of the roundworm ( Nematoda )
1. They have a through-gut 2. They have an anus 3. They do not possess a circulatory system
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Name two types of Arthropod.
Hexapoda ( insects ) and Crustacea ( crabs )
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Name two characteristics of the arthropod.
1. They are segmented 2. They have exoskeletons
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Name a pro and con of having an exoskeleton
+ : Can be used for protection - : limits the potential size of an organism
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What is the definition of adaptation
A trait produced by natural selection to suit its current function
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What is the definition of exaptation
A trait that was produced by natural selection for a different function to what it is being used for
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Name two species of the myriapoda
1. centipede 2. millipede
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Name two key traits of the crustacea
1. Respire through skin or gills 2. head is comprised of 5 appendeges
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Name two traits of the insect
1. Ability to undergo metamorphosis 2. Wings. enabling air transport
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Are Echinoderms exclusively marine organisms
Yes
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Name two structural features of echinoderms
1. They have pentaradial symmetry 2. They have no heads
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Name the two major groups of the hemichordates
1. Acorn worms 2. Pterobranchs
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Name a defining feature of the chordate
They have a post-anal tail and a hollow dorsal nerve cord
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What are the three main groups within the chordate clade
1. Cephalochordates 2. Tunicates 3. Vertebrates
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Name one trait of the cephalochordates
They are aquatic
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Name one trait of the tunicates
The tunicates form marine colonies
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Name two trait of the vertebrates
Vertebrates have rigid internal skulls with developed circulatory systems
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Name two traits of the jawless fish
1. They produce slime and eat rotting flesh 2. the jawless fish have weak circulatory systems
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Name a type of cartilaginous fish
A shark is a cartilaginous fish
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Provide an example of the tetrapod clade
The frog is an example of a tetrapod
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Name a trait of the tetrapods
Their embryo's develop outside of the mothers womb
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State three reasons why plants are a better food source
1. They are abundant 2. An unexploited energy source 3. Less competition for resource
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How have animals adapted to use plants as food
Developed the ability to mechanical breakdown cell walls to release starch
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Why were early mammals unable to chew plants
Their sharp teeth lacked dental occlusion ( contact between the teeth in the upper and lower jaw )
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What type of teeth are beneficial to herbivores.
Canines and Molar
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What is microorganism endosymbiosis
Where micro-organisms are consumed and survive within the gut of the host, providing them with a selective advantage in digesting plant cellulose.
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What is an advantage of having hindgut fermentation
faster digestion
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What is an advantage of having foregut fermentation
More efficient cellulose utilisation
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Name three mammalian radiations
1. Monotremes 2. Marsupials 3. Placentalia
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Name a characteristic of the monotremes
They have no teeth as adults
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What is the definition of '' trophic morph ''
A distinct body shape, usually related to foraging ecology, within the same species
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Name the two types of speciation
Sympatric and Allopatric
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What is the concept of reciprocal rewards
This is where flowers and animals develop a mutually beneficial relationship. e.g shelter for the animal in exchange for pollination.
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What is biotic pollination
Where living organisms transfer the pollen
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Adaptive significance of biotic pollination.
1. Pollen transfer is more efficient by wind 2. Less pollen grains needed
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What animals are involved in pollination.
Beetles, Bees, Butterfly
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Bees cannot see uv illumination. TRUE OR FALSE
false
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What colors are pollinated flowers
White, lightly coloured
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Describe the flowers that are distributed by wind pollination
1. Dull or colourless 2. flower parts reduced in size 3. no nectar
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Describe the structure of pollen
pollen is smooth in wind pollinating flowers and sculptured in biotic pollinating flowers.
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Name three things that the presence of plants lead to
1. created atmosphere 2. food 3. medicines
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Name two characteristics of the green plant
1. They have 2 flagella 2. They can be aquatic or terrestial
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What is the green plant in its diploid phase
A sporophyte ( zygote )
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What is the green plant in its haploid phase
A gametophyte
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What linneage evolved from the green plants
1. Mosses 2. Liveworts 3. Hornworts 4. Vascular plants
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What is the adaptive significance of the sporophyte phase
1. Increased rate of meiosis 2. increased ecological amplitude 3. Increased variability
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What do both stonewort axial and thalloid species have
1. Phragmoplast 2. Plasmodesmata
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What is the archegonium
A sterile jacket that protects the land plants egg
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Why is the egg stored in the archegonium
For protection against drier temperates
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What suffix do organisms in the ' bryophytes ' category have
opsida
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What is the antheridium
A structure that contains sperm
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How does moss spore disposal work
1. Peristome teeth are two ply 2. One layer absorbs water the other does not 3. As water is lost one layer shrinks the other doesn't 4. teeth flex outward
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What are elaters
A cell that changes shape in response to differing moisture levels
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Name a vascular plant
Cooksonia
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What is a stele
The central core of a stem
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Name the four types of stele
1. Protostele 2. siphonostele ( no gaps ) 3. siphonostele ( w/ leaf gaps ) 4. eustele
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Describe the fern spore disposal
The sporangium has a annular thickening which enables it to act like a spring, especially when dried
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Name the two important sets of mutation.
1. Acquisition of heterospory 2. Reduction in size of gametophyte
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What is heterospory
The development of megaspores and microspores
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What does the megaspore form
The female gametophyte ( megagametophyte )
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What does the microspore form
The male gametophyte ( microgametophyte )
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What occurs when the microspore germinates inside spore wall
endosporic development of microgametophyte = pollen grain
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What is the megasporangium with a protective outer layer
Ovule
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What is a seed
A fertilised ovule
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Name two characteristics of the gingko
1. male gametes are multi-flagellate 2. Used medicinally for energy
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What is the importance of conifers
1. Contribution to construction and paper industry 2. ecological dominance in northern hemisphere
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain the term Homoplasy

Back

characteristics shared by a set of species but not present in their common ancestor

Card 3

Front

Explain the term Homology

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the contributions made by Linnaeus

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the contributions made by Cuvier

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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