Animal physiology lecture 1

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  • Animal Physiology
    • Study of how organisms and their component parts function
    • Vesalius, Flemish anatomist and physician
      • Created new Scientific method by overthrowing Galenic teadition and relied on his own observations.
    • William Harvey
      • Discovered circulation
      • Encouraged experimental physiology
    • Claude Bernard
      • Stability of internal environment key to life
    • Walter B Cannon
      • adrenaline plays critical role in maintaining the constancy of the inner world
    • Krogh principle: for many problems there is an animal on which is can be most conveniently studied
      • Worm: small genome easily to sequence
      • Fly: neural mapping, has 1/20th the neurons that we do
      • Zebrafish: develops externally and is translucent - good for studying development
    • What is physiology?
      • Environmentalphysiology
        • Different organisms are differently challenged by a given environment
        • Nature of the environment
          • Stable environment e.g. the deep sea
          • Fluctuating environmentse.g. seasonal/photoperiodic or tidal
        • Size of the environment
      • Ecological physiology
        • George Bartholomew: "Physiological Ecology is an examination of those aspects of physiology that relate to the organism and to its interactions with the environment
      • Evolutionary physiology
        • Investigates the evolutionary mechanisms underlying or constraining diversification of physiological mechanisms.
      • Comparative physiology
        • study of variation in body systems amongst organisms to understand how they function in diverse habitats
      • Conservation physiology
  • Adaptive Organismal Biology
    • Adaption occurs when any change at the DNA level is expressed, via a change in protein function, as a trait that is beneficial in a particular environment and so persists due to selective advantage.
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