Abnormality and Phobias

what does statistical frequency mean?
a definition of abnormality meaning above or below a certain point on a normal distribution curve
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when is statistical infrequency useful?
when diagnosing a disorder such as IDD (intellectual disability disorder) where abnormality is bad and so you require help
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when is statistical infrequency not useful?
when a characteristic is positive (high IQ) as it makes the person feel ostracised
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what is deviation from social norms?
a definition of abnormality based off not conforming to societal expectations
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why is dfsn useful?
distinguishes between desirable and undesirable characteristics
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why is dfsn not useful?
it relies on context (e.g. nudity in a bath vs. on a street), it changes over time (e.g. homosexuality), it's culture-specific (e.g. speaking to the dead in some cultures is normal)
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what is failure to function?
abnormality defined as an inability to cope with the necessary parts of day to date life
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what did Rosenhan and Seligman say about ftf?
it requires: lack of conformity to interpersonal rules, extreme distress, irrationality or danger to the self or others, unpredictability
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what is the ftf dsm?
rated out of 5: understanding and communication, getting around, self care, getting along with others, life activities, societal participation
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when is ftf useful?
it is seen as humane as it thinks about the effect on the individual and their distress
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when is ftf not useful?
sometimes, people can be fitting the ftf dsm but can be happy, functioning is determined by society, under the dsm only non-functioning unhappy people get help
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who was Marie Jahoda?
the first social psychologist at Britain, at the university of sussex, who invented the deviation from ideal mental health definition of abnormality
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what is deviation from ideal mental health?
just as physical abnormality is defined by presence of health, mental abnormality is defined by presence of health
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what is the PRAISE model?
P(ersonal growth and self actualisation), R(eality perception), A(utonomy), I(ntegration and coping with stress), S(elf-attitude), E(nvironment mastery)
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when is dfimh useful?
it is a very humane, positive definition
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when is dfimh not useful?
it's an impossible criteria to fill so everyone is abnormal - Maslow said only 1% will reach self-actualisation, mental and physical health are different so require different definitions
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what are the behavioural characteristics of phobias?
panic (crying, screaming, running, freezing), avoidance of stimulus, endurance of stimulus
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what are the emotional characteristics of phobias?
severe anxiety out of proportion to stimulus, embarrassment at behaviour
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what are the cognitive characteristics of phobias?
awareness that the fear is excessive (separates from schizophrenia), selective attention for phobia (can only think of phobia), irrational beliefs so logic won't help
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what are the behavioural characteristics of OCD?
compulsions to control the anxiety, which are frequently repetitive, aviodance of triggers
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what are the emotional characteristics of OCD?
anxiety from obsessions, depression, embarrassment at compulsions
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what are the cognitive characteristics of OCD?
irrational and obsessive unpleasant thoughts, cognitive coping strategies (such as prayer), awareness of irrationality
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what are the behavioural characteristics of depression?
lethargy, disrupted sleep or eating, aggression, self-harm
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what are the emotional characteristics of depression?
low mood, feelings of worthlessness, anhedonia, anger, low-self-esteem
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what are the cognitive characteristics of depression?
low concentration, negativity bias, absolutist thinking
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what is classical conditioning?
associating a stimulus with another so that the behaviour of one is transferred to the other
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who investigated classical conditioning in dogs?
Pavlov - they were conditioned to drool at the sound of a bell as they associated it with food
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who investigated classical conditioning in humans?
watson and rayner on little albert - he was conditioned to fear rats (and other white fluffy things) as they were associated with a loud noise
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what is operant conditioning?
associating behaviour with consequences
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who investigated operant conditioning?
b.f. skinner by putting a rat in a box with a food lever and the rat learnt to press the lever to get food
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what is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
negative reinforcement is the removal of a negative stimulus to reward good behaviour and punishment is the addition of a negative stimulus to stop bad behaviour
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what is shaping?
guiding behaviour closer to the expected
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what is the two-process model?
how classical conditioning introduces a phobia and operant conditioning reinforces it
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what are the positives of behavioural approach to explaining phobias?
it translates well into successful treatment, it has research support
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what are the negatives of behavioural approach to explaining phobias?
it is incomplete as it doesn't account for theory of biological preparedness, it doesn't explain cognitive aspects
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what are the two treatments for phobias?
systematic desensitisation and flooding
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what does systematic desensitisation involve?
slowly exposing the patient to their fear, starting a low anxiety level, and increasing, whilst practicing relaXATION
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what is the research support for systematic densensitisation?
Magrath (1990) found that 75% of phobic patients respond to treatment
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what are positives to systematic densensitisation?
quicker than other treatments, less effort from client, control from individual, can be self-administered as a phone app, unlike drugs it treats the cause instead of just the symptoms
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what are the negatives of systematic desensitisation?
it's more expensive and takes longer than drugs, sometimes the phobia is something that requires imagination as the trigger is impractical (e.g. sharks)
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what is flooding?
exposing the patient to the most extreme version of their phobia without ability to get out
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what are the positives of flooding?
it's very quick, it's cheaper than other treatments
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what are the negatives of flooding?
Shipley (1980) found 0.2% get panic attacks, it's ethically difficult as it's hard to get informed consent and it's even harder with little kids, many people leave before the treatment even begins
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Card 2

Front

when is statistical infrequency useful?

Back

when diagnosing a disorder such as IDD (intellectual disability disorder) where abnormality is bad and so you require help

Card 3

Front

when is statistical infrequency not useful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is deviation from social norms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why is dfsn useful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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