A2 OCR Biology Key Terms and Definitions Respiration

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Active Transport
The movement of molecules or ions transport proteins across a cell membrane, against their concentration gradient or electrochemical gradient, involving the use of energy from ATP.
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Metabolic Reactions
The chemical reactions that take place in living organisms.
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Muscle Cells
Cells making up muscle tissue; they contain the proteins actin and myosin that are able to use energy from ATP to slide along each other and shorten the cell.
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Respiration
The release of chemical energy from glucose or other substrates by oxidation; most of the energy is used to make ATP; it happens in all living cells.
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ATPase
An enzyme that can catalyse the conversion of ADP and Pi into ATP or the reverse reaction; sometimes known as ATP synthase.
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Glycolysis
The first set of reactions in respiration; it takes place in the cytoplasm and results in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate, with the net gain of two ATPs per glucose molecule.
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Hexose Bisphosphate
A six-carbon sugar with two phosphate groups attached.
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Phosphorylation
The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule.
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Pyruvate
A three-carbon molecule that is the end-product of glycolysis.
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Dehydrogenase
An enzyme that can remove hydrogen from a substance.
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NAD
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; a coenzyme that is required to allow dehydrogenases to remove hydrogens; the NAD accepts them and becomes reduced.
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Coenzyme
A non-protein substance that is required for an enzyme to catalyse a reaction.
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Reduction
The loss of oxygen, the gain of hydrogen or the gain of electrons.
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Reduced NAD
NAD that has picked up hydrogens.
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Cristae
Folds in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion, on which the electron transport chain is found.
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Matrix
The ‘background material’ inside a mitochondrion, where the link reaction and the Krebs cycle take place.
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Link Reaction
A reaction taking place in the matrix of a mitochondrion, in which pyruvate reacts with CoA to form acetyl CoA and carbon dioxide.
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Decarboxylation
The removal of carbon dioxide from a substance.
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Coenzyme A (CoA)
A coenzyme required for the removal of carbon dioxide by decarboxylase enzymes.
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Acetyl CoA
Coenzyme A with an acetate group attached.
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Krebs Cycle
The cycle of reactions that takes place in the matrix of a mitochondrion, in which pyruvate is oxidised to oxaloacetate; ATP, reduced NAD and reduced FAD are produced, and carbon dioxide is given off.
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Oxaloacetate
A four-carbon compound that is involved in the Krebs cycle.
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Citrate
A six-carbon compound that is involved in the Krebs cycle.
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FAD
Flavine adenine dinucleotide; a coenzyme that is required to allow dehydrogenases to remove hydrogens; the FAD accepts them and becomes reduced.
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Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
The production of ATP directly from a reaction in the Krebs cycle, not involving the electron transport chain.
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Chemiosmosis
The way in which the diffusion of protons down a proton gradient produced across the inner membrane of a mitochondrion, or across a thylakoid membrane in a chloroplast, provides energy for the synthesis of ATP.
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Lactate
A three-carbon compound produced by the addition of hydrogen to pyruvate during anaerobic respiration.
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Oxygen Debt
The extra oxygen required by the body after exercise has taken place partly fuelled by anaerobic respiration; the extra oxygen is needed to convert the lactic acid that has been formed to pyruvate.
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Respiratory Substrate
A substrate that can be oxidised in respiration to release energy for the synthesis of ATP
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Card 2

Front

The chemical reactions that take place in living organisms.

Back

Metabolic Reactions

Card 3

Front

Cells making up muscle tissue; they contain the proteins actin and myosin that are able to use energy from ATP to slide along each other and shorten the cell.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The release of chemical energy from glucose or other substrates by oxidation; most of the energy is used to make ATP; it happens in all living cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An enzyme that can catalyse the conversion of ADP and Pi into ATP or the reverse reaction; sometimes known as ATP synthase.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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