A-Level Sociology Education - Unit 3 (OCR)

Functionalism
Purpose of education is to teach the norms and values to remain in consensus (cultural transmission) and to allocate people the most effective role within society.
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Marxism
Role of education is to maintain a capitalist society by preparing workers for their roles within this. Education teaches the norms and values that benefit the capitalists and judges everyone on having following these (cultural reproduction).
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Liberal
Education should benefit the individual rather than society (Illich - Formal schooling should be abolished as it teaches students to pass exams and does not encourage individuality) e.g. Summerhill School
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Social Democratic
Education does not offer working classes the same opportunities as the higher classes; government intervention is needed to do this. Social Democratic principles were adopted by the traditional Labour Party (Callaghan)
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New Right
Purpose of education is to benefit the economy, so that the UK can compete on a global scale. Similarities with Functionalist view. Instead of focusing on tackling inequalities should be on raising standards of schools. Government intervention is not
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Durkheim
Education gives a sense of belonging, schools like society in miniature, division of labour.
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Parsons
Education eases transition from childhood to adulthood, teaches the universalistic values needed to be integrated into bigger society, meritocracy.
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Davis & Moore
Role allocation - education sorts people for society - organic analogy
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Bowles & Gintis
Correspondence Principle - link between education and work: Subservient workers, acceptance of hierarchy, jug and mug, fragmented subject knowledge, hidden curriculum.
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Althusser
Education has taken over from religion in being an ideological state apparatus
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Willis
Education tries to mould working classes into becoming subservient worker, but Willis's boys rebelled against this.
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Thatcher - 1988 Education Reform Act
National Curriculum, SATS/league tables, OFSTED, City Technology Colleges, Formula Funding, Grant Maintained Schools, Local Management of Schools
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Blair - 1997+
Literacy & Numeracy hour, Target Setting, Education Action Zones, Sure Start, EMA, Widening Access to HE, Inclusion not exclusion
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New Coalition - 2010+
Teachers to have more control, tougher assessment, New national curriculum, more academies, more apprenticeships, A-Level exams after 2 years, grammar schools.
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Sutton Trust 2008
If a child from a working class background made it to A-Levels, the chances of going to uni were the same as a child from an affluent family, however were less likely go to prestigious university.
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Douglas
Middle class stayed in education longer than working class, working class parents placed less value on their children's education.
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Feinstein
The major factor in the differences of social class attainment in parental interest. Agreed with Douglas.
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Hyman & Sugarman
Fatalistic Values - working class culture encourages present time orientation, collectivism, immediate gratification.
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Bernstein
Language codes - elaborate & restrictive
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Blackstone & Mortimer
Criticises Douglas - Working class parents find it difficult to to get involved with their children's education.
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Labov
Criticises Bernstein - Afro-Caribbean males from New York choose to speak restricted but knew elaborate.
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Rosen
Criticise Bernstein - evidence for these assumptions is limited.
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Bourdieu
The skills that working classes have are not valued in a capitalist society - education reproduces what values are and are not acceptable - Education teaches middle class knowledge (Cultural Capital)
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Ball, Bowe & Gerwitz
Middle class parents can play the system to get into the best schools - Parents were choosers (privileged skilled, semi-skilled and disconnected).
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Sullivan
Cultural Capital is learnt from parents in the home, students with most cultural capital were children of university educated professionals.
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Reay
Middle class mothers taught their children cultural capital
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Boudon
Working classes risk being outcast from their culture if they try to socially promote themselves, likewise when middle class/upper classes want to socially demote themselves
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Howard
Howard
28 of 76
Smith and Noble
Poverty can cause underachievement - poor housing, poor school, etc.
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Mortimore
Material Deprivation has more impact than inside school factors
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Rosenthal and Jacobson
Labelling and self-fulfilling prophecy
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Hargreaves, Hester & Mellor
Teachers label pupils early in school and this creates anti-school subcultures. 1) teacher makes hypothesis 2) confirmed/rejected 3) teacher knows.
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Ball & Keddie
Banding & Streaming
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Gillbourne & Youdell (class)
Setting is according to social class not ability - teachers make assumptions of ability
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Cicourel & Kitsuse
Careers advice given to working class students differs to that given to middle class, working class students viewed negatively due to clothes, languages and behaviour.
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Fuller
Black females in London worked against their negative label to prove teachers wrong
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Merton
Self-fulfilling prophecy
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Psi Survey - 4th
Chinese and Indian had higher qualifications, Afro-Caribbean and Pakistani had least qualifications. Lack of English language could effect some ethnic minority groups. 1/5 of Pakistani women could not speak fluent English.
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Hernstein & Murray
Black people scored lower in IQ tests than whites - intelligence is biological.
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Pilkington
Argues against the biological explanation and argues that it ignores environmental factors.
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Driver & Ballard
Chinese and Indian parents had high aspirations for their children despite having few qualifications themselves.
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Briggs
Ethnic minorities improve at a faster rate than white people when in the school environment.
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Swann
A large part of ethnic failure is down to poverty and not language barriers.
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Drew
Afro-Caribbean's, Bangladeshi and Pakistani students did least well due to their social class background.
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Wright
Teachers labelled Asians as poor at English and excluded them from discussions.
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Archer and Francis
Chinese parents place time and money into their children's education.
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Modood
Language barriers affect Asian school children's achievement.
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Coard
Curriculum is ethnocentric and makes black children feel like failures, racism also reinforced in the playground.
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Bologanani
Some ethnic minorities believe they will return to their country of origin and do not fully integrate into school life - miss chunks of their education to visit family abroad.
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Sewell
High percentage of Afro-Caribbean families are headed by mothers - lack male role models.
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Strand
Teachers expect trouble from black students and make inaccurate judgements on their ability levels.
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Gillbourne & Youdell (ethnicity)
Teachers placed black students in lower sets. Schools ignore the social context of young black people's lives and place too much value on test scores. Teachers expect black students to be a problem.
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Howard
Ethnic minorities fail due to material deprivation - Bangladeshi and Pakistani are 3 times more likely to be living in poverty than white people.
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Meighan
(Before 1980) More boys at a A-level, university, more boys in science subjects and girls in arts.
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Spender
(Before 1980) Girls were invisible in the classroom which damaged girls education
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Licht & Dweck
(Before 1980) Girls had less self-confidence than boys, boys were criticised more which improved their confidence.
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Stanworth
(Before 1980) Teachers paid more attention to the boys and changed direction of lessons if boys looked bored.
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Sharpe
Girls priorities have changed from babies to successful career.
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Millet, Greer & Oakley
Rise of the feminist movement positively influenced girls attitudes.
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Gray & Mclellan
Girls more positive about their education than boys.
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Oakley
Primary socialisation influences gendered behaviours by subject choice.
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Weiner, Arnott & David
Failing boys is a 'moral panic' created by the media.
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Mac an Ghaill
Crisis of masculinity
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Kane
Working class boys became anti-school due to lack of opportunities.
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Mitsos & Browne
The improvement in girls performance comes as a result of equal rights for women.
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Jackson
Boys develop laddish behaviour to reassert their authority over girls.
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Willis (Gender)
Working class lads reject school because it does not correspond to hegemonic masculinity.
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Archer
Working class girls may also reject school because it conflicts with their notion of femininity.
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Connolly
Middle class boys are more positive to school than working class boys.
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Finn (Marxist)
Critique of vocational education - youth training schemes are little more than cheap labour,
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De Waal
Critique of New Labour - vocational qualifications are not up to scratch. Help to re-create old divisions in education between the classes.
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Davies and Biesta
Vocational education can vary greatly in quality
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Machin and Mcnally
Government's literacy scheme has been a success.
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Ball
Education allows greater choice but may lead to divisions in education. 'Knowledge economy' is allowing education to become too subservient to the needs of industry.
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Machin & Vignoles
EMA has been a success - has helped more working class pupils to participate.
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U of London - 2008
Sure start has helped kids form poorer backgrounds with greater self-esteem and health.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Role of education is to maintain a capitalist society by preparing workers for their roles within this. Education teaches the norms and values that benefit the capitalists and judges everyone on having following these (cultural reproduction).

Back

Marxism

Card 3

Front

Education should benefit the individual rather than society (Illich - Formal schooling should be abolished as it teaches students to pass exams and does not encourage individuality) e.g. Summerhill School

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Education does not offer working classes the same opportunities as the higher classes; government intervention is needed to do this. Social Democratic principles were adopted by the traditional Labour Party (Callaghan)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Purpose of education is to benefit the economy, so that the UK can compete on a global scale. Similarities with Functionalist view. Instead of focusing on tackling inequalities should be on raising standards of schools. Government intervention is not

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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